中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 1

时间 : 2013-09-29 20:40来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
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作者简介

马可·奥勒留:(Marcus Aurelius,公元121—180年)著名的“帝王哲学家”,古罗马帝国皇帝,在希腊文学和拉丁文学、修辞、哲学、法律、绘画方面受过很好的教育,晚期斯多葛学派代表人物之一。奥勒留也许是西方历史上唯一的一位哲学家皇帝。他是一个比他的帝国更加完美的人,他的勤奋工作最终并没有能够挽救古罗马,但是他的《沉思录》却成为西方历史上最为感人的伟大名著。

马可·奥勒留是一个悲怆的人;在一系列必须加以抗拒的欲望里,他感到其中最具有吸引力的就是想要引退去过一种宁静的乡村生活的那种愿望。但是实现这种愿望的机会始终没有来临。

 

BOOK 1 :

FROM my grandfather Verus I learned good morals and the government of my temper.

从我的祖父维勒斯,我学习到弘德和制怒。

From the reputation and remembrance of my father, modesty and a manly character.

从我父亲的名声及对他的追忆, 我懂得了谦虚和果敢。

From my mother, piety and beneficence, and abstinence, not only from evil deeds, but even from evil thoughts; and further, simplicity in my way of living, far removed from the habits of the rich. 

从我的母亲,我濡染了虔诚、仁爱和不仅戒除恶行,甚而戒除恶念的品质,以及远离奢侈的简朴生活方式。

From my great-grandfather, not to have frequented public schools, and to have had good teachersat home, and to know that on such things a man should spend liberally.

从我的曾祖父那里,我懂得了不要时常出入公共学校,而是要在家里有好的教师;懂得了在这些事情上一个人要不吝钱财。

From my governor, to be neither of the green nor of the blue party at the games in the Circus, nor a partizan either of the Parmularius or the Scutarius at the gladiators' fights; from him too I learned endurance of labour, and to want little, and to work with my own hands, and not to meddle with other people's affairs, and not to be ready to listen to slander.

从我的老师那里,我明白了不要介入马戏中的任何一派,也不要陷入角斗戏中的党争;我从他也爱会了忍受劳作、清心寡欲、事必躬亲,不干涉他人事务和不轻蕉流言诽谤。

From Diognetus, not to busy myself about trifling things, and not to give credit to what was said by miracle-workers and jugglers about incantations and the driving away of daemons and such things; and not to breed quails for fighting, nor to give myself up passionately to such things; and to endure freedom of speech; and to have become intimate with philosophy; and to have been a hearer, first of Bacchius, then of Tandasis and Marcianus; and to have written dialogues in my youth; and to have desired a plank bed and skin, and whatever else of the kind belongs to the Grecian discipline.

从戴奥吉纳图斯,我学会了不使自己碌碌于琐事,不相信术士巫师之言,驱除鬼怪精灵和类似的东西;学会了不畏惧也不热衷于战斗;学会了让人说话;学会了亲近哲学。我先是巴克斯,然后是坦德西斯、马尔塞勒斯的一个倾听者,我年青时学习写过对话,向往卧人硬板床和衣粗毛皮,从他,我还学会了其他所有属于希腊学问的东西。

From Rusticus I received the impression that my character required improvement and discipline; and from him I learned not to be led astray to sophistic emulation, nor to writing on speculative matters, nor to delivering little hortatory orations, nor to showing myself off as a man who practises much discipline, or does benevolent acts in order to make a display; and to abstain from rhetoric, and poetry, and fine writing; and not to walk about in the house in my outdoor dress, nor to do other things of the kind; and to write my letters with simplicity, like the letter which Rusticus wrote from Sinuessa to my mother; and with respect to those who have offended me by words, or done me wrong, to be easily disposed to be pacified and reconciled, as soon as they have shown a readiness to be reconciled; and to read carefully, and not to be satisfied with a superficial understanding of a book; nor hastily to give my assent to those who talk overmuch; and I am indebted to him for being acquainted with the discourses of Epictetus, which he communicated to me out of his own collection.

从拉斯蒂克斯,我领悟到我的品格需要改进和训练,知道不迷误于诡辩的竞赛,不写作投机的东西,不进行繁琐的劝诫,不显示自己训练有素,或者做仁慈的行为以图炫耀;学会了避免辞藻华丽、构思精巧的写作;不穿着出门用的衣服在室内行走及别的类似事件;学会了以朴素的风格写信,就像拉斯蒂克斯从锡纽埃瑟给我的母亲写的信一样;对于那些以言词冒犯我,或者对我做了错事的人,一旦他们表现出和解的意愿,就乐意地与他们和解;从他,我也学会了仔细地阅读,不满足于表面的理解,不轻率地同意那些夸夸其谈的人;我亦感谢他使我熟悉了埃比克太德的言论,那是他从自己的收藏中传授给我的。

From Apollonius I learned freedom of will and undeviating steadiness of purpose; and to look to nothing else, not even for a moment, except to reason; and to be always the same, in sharp pains, on the occasion of the loss of a child, and in long illness; and to see clearly in a living example that the same man can be both most resolute and yielding, and not peevish in giving his instruction; and to have had before my eyes a man who clearly considered his experience and his skill in expounding philosophical principles as the smallest of his merits; and from him I learned how to receive from friends what are esteemed favours, without being either humbled by them or letting them pass unnoticed.

从阿珀洛尼厄斯,我懂得了意志的自由,和目标的坚定不移;懂得了在任何时候都要依赖理性,而不依赖任何别的东西;懂得了在失子和久病的剧烈痛苦中镇定如常;从他,我也清楚地看到了一个既坚定又灵活,在教导人时毫不暴躁的活的榜样;看到了一个清醒地不以他解释各种哲学原则时的经验和艺术自傲的人;从他,我也学会了如何从值得尊敬的朋友那里得到好感而又丝毫不显得卑微,或者对他们置若罔闻。

From Sextus, a benevolent disposition, and the example of a family governed in a fatherly manner, and the idea of living conformably to nature; and gravity without affectation, and to look carefully after the interests of friends, and to tolerate ignorant persons, and those who form opinions without consideration: he had the power of readily accommodating himself to all, so that intercourse with him was more agreeable than any flattery; and at the same time he was most highly venerated by those who associated with him: and he had the faculty both of discovering and ordering, in an intelligent and methodical way, the principles necessary for life; and he never showed anger or any other passion, but was entirely free from passion, and also most affectionate; and he could express approbation without noisy display, and he possessed much knowledge without ostentation.

从塞克斯都,我看到了一种仁爱的气质,一个以慈爱方式管理家庭的榜样和合乎自然地生活的观念,看到了毫无矫饰的庄严,为朋友谋利的细心,对无知者和那些不假思索发表意见的人的容忍:他有一种能使自己和所有人欣然相处的能力,以致和他交往的愉快胜过任何奉承,同时,他又受到那些与其交往者的高度尊敬。他具有一种以明智和系统的方式发现和整理必要的生活原则的能力,他从不表现任何愤怒或别的激情,完全避免了激情而同时又温柔宽厚,他能够表示嘉许而毫不罗嗦,拥有渊博知识而毫不矜夸。

From Alexander the grammarian, to refrain from fault-finding, and not in a reproachful way to chide those who uttered any barbarous or solecistic or strange-sounding expression; but dexterously to introduce the very expression which ought to have been used, and in the way of answer or giving confirmation, or joining in an inquiry about the thing itself, not about the word, or by some other fit suggestion.

从文法家亚历山大,我学会了避免挑剔,不去苛责那些表达上有粗俗、欠文理和生造等毛病的人们,而是灵巧地通过回答的方式、证实的方式、探讨事物本身而非词汇的方式,或者别的恰当启示,来引出那应当使用的正确表达。

From Fronto I learned to observe what envy, and duplicity, and hypocrisy are in a tyrant, and thatgenerally those among us who are called Patricians are rather deficient in paternal affection.

从弗朗特,我学会了观察仅仅在一个暴君那里存在的嫉妒、伪善和口是心蜚非,知道我们中间那些被称为上流人的一般是相当缺乏仁慈之情的。

From Alexander the Platonic, not frequently nor without necessity to say to any one, or to write in a letter, that I have no leisure; nor continually to excuse the neglect of duties required by our relation to those with whom we live, by alleging urgent occupations.

从柏拉图派学者亚历山大,我懂得了不必经常但也不是无需对人说话或写信,懂得了我没有闲暇;懂得了我们并不是总能以紧迫事务的借口来推卸对与自己一起生活的那些人的义务。

From Catulus, not to be indifferent when a friend finds fault, even if he should find fault without reason, but to try to restore him to his usual disposition; and to be ready to speak well of teachers, as it is reported of Domitius and Athenodotus; and to love my children truly.

从克特勒斯,我懂得了当一个朋友抱怨,即使是无理地抱怨时也不能漠然置之,而是要试图使他恢复冷静;懂得了要随时准备以好言相劝,正像人们所说的多米蒂厄斯和雅特洛多图斯一样。从他,我也懂得了真诚地爱我的孩子。

From my brother Severus, to love my kin, and to love truth, and to love justice; and through him I learned to know Thrasea, Helvidius, Cato, Dion, Brutus; and from him I received the idea of a polity in which there is the same law for all, a polity administered with regard to equal rights and equal freedom of speech, and the idea of a kingly government which respects most of all the freedom of the governed; I learned from him also consistency and undeviating steadiness in my regard for philosophy; and a disposition to do good, and to give to others readily, and to cherish good hopes, and to believe that I am loved by my friends; and in him I observed no concealment of his opinions with respect to those whom he condemned, and that his friends had no need to conjecture what he wished or did not wish, but it was quite plain.

从我的兄弟西维勒斯,我懂得了爱我的亲人,爱真理,爱正义;从他,我知道了思雷西亚、黑尔维蒂厄斯、加图、戴昂、布鲁特斯;从他我接受了一种以同样的法对待所有人、实施权利平等和言论自由平等的政体的思想,和一种最大范围地尊重被治者的所有自由的王者之治的观念;我也从他那里获得一种对于哲学的始终一贯和坚定不移的尊重,一种和善的品质,为人随和,抱以善望,相信自己为朋友所爱;我也看到他从不隐瞒他对他所谴责的那些人的意见,他的朋友无需猜测他的意愿;这些意愿是相当透明的。

From Maximus I learned self-government, and not to be led aside by anything; and cheerfulness in all circumstances, as well as in illness; and a just admixture in the moral character of sweetness and dignity, and to do what was set before me without complaining. I observed that everybody believed that he thought as he spoke, and that in all that he did he never had any bad intention; and he never showed amazement and surprise, and was never in a hurry, and never put off doing a thing, nor was perplexed nor dejected, nor did he ever laugh to disguise his vexation, nor, on the other hand, was he ever passionate or suspicious. He was accustomed to do acts of beneficence, and was ready to forgive, and was free from all falsehood; and he presented the appearance of a man who could not be diverted from right rather than of a man who had been improved. I observed, too, that no man could ever think that he was despised by Maximus, or ever venture to think himself a better man. He had also the art of being humorous in an agreeable way.

从马克西默斯,我学会了自制,不为任何东西所左右,在任何环境里和疾病中欢愉如常,在道德品格方面形成一种甜美和尊严的恰当配合;做摆在面前的事情并毫无怨言。我注意到所有人都相信思如其言,在任何行为中都不抱恶意;他从未表现过奇怪和惊骇,从不匆忙,从不拖延,从不困惑或沮丧,他不以笑声掩饰他的焦虑,另一方面也不狂热或多疑。他已习惯于仁慈的行为,随时准备宽恕,避开所有的错误;他给人的印象与其说是一贯公正,不如说是不断改善。我也注意到:任何人都不能认为受到了他的蔑视,或者敢自认是比他更好的人。他也具有一种令人愉快的幽默的本领。

In my father I observed mildness of temper, and unchangeable resolution in the things which he had determined after due deliberation; and no vainglory in those things which men call honours; and a love of labour and perseverance; and a readiness to listen to those who had anything to propose for the common weal; and undeviating firmness in giving to every man according to his deserts; and a knowledge derived from experience of the occasions for vigorous action and for remission. And I observed that he had overcome all passion for boys; and he considered himself no more than any other citizen; and he released his friends from all obligation to sup with him or to attend him of necessity when he went abroad, and those who had failed to accompany him, by reason of any urgent circumstances, always found him the same. I observed too his habit of careful inquiry in all matters of deliberation, and his persistency, and that he never stopped his investigation through being satisfied with appearances which first present themselves; and that his disposition was to keep his friends, and not to be soon tired of them, nor yet to be extravagant in his affection; and to be satisfied on all occasions, and cheerful; and to foresee things a long way off, and to provide for the smallest without display; and to check immediately popular applause and all flattery; and to be ever watchful over the things which were necessary for the administration of the empire, and to be a good manager of the expenditure, and patiently to endure the blame which he got for such conduct; and he was neither superstitious with respect to the gods, nor did he court men by gifts or by trying to please them, or by flattering the populace; but he showed sobriety in all things and firmness, and never any mean thoughts or action, nor love of novelty. And the things which conduce in any way to the commodity of life, and of which fortune gives an abundant supply, he used without arrogance and without excusing himself; so that when he had them, he enjoyed them without affectation, and when he had them not, he did not want them. No one could ever say of him that he was either a sophist or a home-bred flippant slave or a pedant; but every one acknowledged him to be a man ripe, perfect, above flattery, able to manage his own and other men's affairs. Besides this, he honoured those who were true philosophers, and he did not reproach those who pretended to be philosophers, nor yet was he easily led by them. He was also easy in conversation, and he made himself agreeable without any offensive affectation. He took a reasonable care of his body's health, not as one who was greatly attached to life, nor out of regard to personal appearance, nor yet in a careless way, but so that, through his own attention, he very seldom stood in need of the physician's art or of medicine or external applications. He was most ready to give way without envy to those who possessed any particular faculty, such as that of eloquence or knowledge of the law or of morals, or of anything else; and he gave them his help, that each might enjoy reputation according to his deserts; and he always acted conformably to the institutions of his country, without showing any affectation of doing so. Further, he was not fond of change nor unsteady, but he loved to stay in the same places, and to employ himself about the same things; and after his paroxysms of headache he came immediately fresh and vigorous to his usual occupations. His secrets were not but very few and very rare, and these only about public matters; and he showed prudence and economy in the exhibition of the public spectacles and the construction of public buildings, his donations to the people, and in such things, for he was a man who looked to what ought to be done, not to the reputation which is got by a man's acts. He did not take the bath at unseasonable hours; he was not fond of building houses, nor curious about what he ate, nor about the texture and colour of his clothes, nor about the beauty of his slaves. His dress came from Lorium, his villa on the coast, and from Lanuvium generally. We know how he behaved to the toll-collector at Tusculum who asked his pardon; and such was all his behaviour. There was in him nothing harsh, nor implacable, nor violent, nor, as one may say, anything carried to the sweating point; but he examined all things severally, as if he had abundance of time, and without confusion, in an orderly way, vigorously and consistently. And that might be applied to him which is recorded of Socrates, that he was able both to abstain from, and to enjoy, those things which many are too weak to abstain from, and cannot enjoy without excess. But to be strong enough both to bear the one and to be sober in the other is the mark of a man who has a perfect and invincible soul, such as he showed in the illness of Maximus.

在我的父亲那里, 我看到了一种温柔的气质,和在他经过适当的考虑之后对所决定的事情的不可更改的决心;在世人认为光荣的事情上他毫无骄矜之心,热爱劳作,持之以恒,乐意倾听对公共福利提出的建议;在论功行赏方面毫不动摇,并拥有一种从经验中获得的辨别精力充沛和软弱无力的行动的知识。我注意到克服了对孩子的所有激情;他把自己视为与任何别的公民一样平等的公民;他解除了他的朋友要与他一起喝茶,或者在他去国外时必须觐见他的所有义务,那些由于紧急事务而没有陪伴他的人,总是发现他对他们一如往常。我也看到了他仔细探讨所有需要考虑的事情的习惯,他坚持不懈,决不因对初步印象的满足就停止他的探究;他有一种保持友谊的气质,不会很快厌倦朋友,同时又不放纵自己的柔情;他对所有环境都感到满足和快乐;能不夸示地显微知着,富有远见;他直接阻止流行的赞颂和一切谄媚;对帝国的管理所需要的事务保持警醒,善于量入为出,精打细算,并耐心地忍受由此而来的责难;他不迷信神灵,也不以赏赐、娱乐或奉承大众而对人们献殷勤;他在所有事情上都显示出一种清醒和坚定,不表现任何卑贱的思想或行为,也不好新骛奇。对于幸运所赐的丰富的有益于生命的东西,他不炫耀也不推辞,所以,当他拥有这些东西时,他享受它们且毫不做作;而当他没有这些东西时,他也不渴求它们。没有人能说他像一个诡辩家、一个能说会道的家奴,或者卖弄学问的人,而都承认他是成熟的人,完善的人,不受奉承的影响,能够安排他自己和别人事务的人。除此之外他尊重那些真正的哲学家,他不谴责那些自称是哲学家的人,同时又不易受他们的影响。他在社交方面也是容易相处的,他使人感到惬意且毫无损人的装腔作势。他对他的身体健康有一种合理的关心,他既不是太依恋生命,又不是对个人的形象漠不关心(虽然还是有点漫不经心),但他通过自己的注意,仍然很少需要看医生、吃药或进补品。他很乐意并毫无嫉妒心地给拥有任何特殊才能的人开路,像那些具有雄辩才能或拥有法律、道德等知识的人,他给他们以帮助,使每个人都能依其长处而享有名声;他总是按照他的国家的制度行事并毫不做作。而且,他不喜欢变动不居,而是爱好住在同一个地方,专注于同一件事情,在他的头痛病发作过去之后,他又马上焕然一新,精力充沛地去做他通常的工作。他的秘密不多,而且这很少的一些秘密也都是有关公事的;他在公众观瞻之物和公共建筑的建设中,在他对人民的捐赠中表现出谨慎和节约,因为在这些事情上,他注意的是是否应当做这些事,而不是注意从这些事情上获取名声。他不在不合时宜的时刻洗澡,不喜欢大兴土木营建住宅,也不关注他的饮食、他的衣服的质料和色彩,以及他的奴隶的美貌。他的衣服一般是从他在海滨的别墅罗内姆来的,是从拉努维阿姆来的。我们都知道他是怎样对待请求他宽恕的塔斯丘佗的收税人的,这就是他总的态度。在他那里,找不到任何东西;他分别地考察所有事情,仿佛他有充分的时间,毫不混淆,有条有理,精力充沛,始终一贯。那对苏格拉底的记录也可以用之于他,他能够放弃也能够享受那些东西-这些东西是许多人太软弱以致既不能够放弃、又不能够有节制的享受的。而这种一方面能足够强健地承受,另一方面又能保持清醒的品质,正是一个拥有一颗完善的、不可战胜的灵魂的人的标志,这正像他在马克西默斯的疾病中所表现的一样。

To the gods I am indebted for having good grandfathers, good parents, a good sister, good teachers, good associates, good kinsmen and friends, nearly everything good. Further, I owe it to the gods that I was not hurried into any offence against any of them, though I had a disposition which, if opportunity had offered, might have led me to do something of this kind; but, through their favour,there never was such a concurrence of circumstances as put me to the trial. Further, I am thankful to the gods that I was not longer brought up with my grandfather's concubine, and that I preserved the flower of my youth, and that I did not make proof of my virility before the proper season, but even deferred the time; that I was subjected to a ruler and a father who was able to take away all pride from me, and to bring me to the knowledge that it is possible for a man to live in a palace without wanting either guards or embroidered dresses, or torches and statues, and such-like show; but that it is in such a man's power to bring himself very near to the fashion of a private person, without being for this reason either meaner in thought, or more remiss in action, with respect to the things which must be done for the public interest in a manner that befits a ruler. I thank the gods for giving me such a brother, who was able by his moral character to rouse me to vigilance over myself, and who, at the same time, pleased me by his respect and affection; that my children have not been stupid nor deformed in body; that I did not make more proficiency in rhetoric, poetry, and the other studies, in which I should perhaps have been completely engaged, if I had seen that I was making progress in them; that I made haste to place those who brought me up in the station of honour, which they seemed to desire, without putting them off with hope of my doing it some time after, because they were then still young; that I knew Apollonius, Rusticus,Maximus; that I received clear and frequent impressions about living according to nature, and what kind of a life that is, so that, so far as depended on the gods, and their gifts, and help, and inspirations, nothing hindered me from forthwith living according to nature, though I still fall short of it through my own fault, and through not observing the admonitions of the gods, and, I may almost say, their direct instructions; that my body has held out so long in such a kind of life;that I never touched either Benedicta or Theodotus, and that, after having fallen into amatory passions, I was cured; and, though I was often out of humour with Rusticus, I never did anything of which I had occasion to repent; that, though it was my mother's fate to die young, she spent the last years of her life with me; that, whenever I wished to help any man in his need, or on any other occasion, I was never told that I had not the means of doing it; and that to myself the same necessity never happened, to receive anything from another; that I have such a wife, so obedient, and so affectionate, and so simple; that I had abundance of good masters for my children; and that remedies have been shown to me by dreams, both others, and against bloodspitting and giddiness...; and that, when I had an inclination to philosophy, I did not fall into the hands of any sophist, and that I did not waste my time on writers of histories, or in the resolution of syllogisms,or occupy myself about the investigation of appearances in the heavens; for all these things require the help of the gods and fortune.

我为我有好的祖辈、好的父母、好的姐妹、好的教师、好的同伴、好的亲朋和几乎好的一切而感谢神明。我也为此而感谢神明:我没有卷入对他们任何一个的冒犯。虽然我有这样一种气质,如果有机会是可能使我做出这种事情的,但是,由于他们的好意,还没有这种机缘凑巧使我经受这种考验。而且,我还要感谢神明:我很早就不由我的祖父之妾抚养,我保护了我的青春之美,直到恰当的时辰甚至稍稍推迟这个时辰才来证明我的男情精力;我隶属于一个统治者、一个父亲,他能够从我这里夺去所有的虚骄,而带给我这样的知识,即懂得一个人是可以住在一个不需要卫兵、华衣美食、火把和雕像等东西的宫殿里的,而且一个人有力量过一种私心所好的生活,同时并不因此而思想下贱,行动懈怠,因为他重视以有利于一个统治者的方式为公众谋利所必须做的事情。我感谢神明给了我这样一个兄弟,他能以他的道德品格使我警醒,同时又以他的尊重和柔情使我愉悦;感谢神明使我的孩子既不愚笨又不残废,使我并不熟谙修辞、诗歌和别的学问,假如我看到自己在这些方面取得进展的话,本来有可能完全沉醉于其中的;我感谢神明使我迅速地给予了那些培养我的人以他们看来愿意有的荣誉,而没有延宕他们曾对我寄予的愿我以后这样做的期望(因为他们那时还是年轻的);我感谢神明使我认识了阿珀洛尼厄斯、拉斯蒂克斯、马克西默斯,这使我对按照自然生活,对那种依赖神灵及他们的恩赐、帮助和灵感而过的生活得到了清晰而巩固的印象,没有什么东西阻止我立即按照自然生活,然而我还是因为自己的过错,因为没有注意到神灵的劝告(我几乎还可以说是他们的直接指示)而没有达到它;我的身体置于这样一种生活之外如此之久,我从未达到本尼迪克特或西奥多图斯的高度,但在陷入情欲之后,我还是被治愈了;虽然我常常达不到拉斯蒂克斯的那种气质,但还是没有做过使我悔恨的事情;虽然我母亲不能尽其天年而终,但她最后的年月是与我在一起的;在我希望帮助任何需要帮助的人的时候,或在任何别的场合,我都不感到我缺乏这样做的手段;而对我自己来说却不会有同样的需要:即需要从别人那里得到的东西;我有一个十分温顺、深情和朴实的妻子;我有许多优秀的教师来教育我的孩子;通过梦和其他办法,我发现各种药物来治疗咯血和头昏……当我有一种对哲学的爱好时,我没有落入任何诡辩家之手,没有在历史作品上,或者在三段论法的解决上浪费时间,也没有专注于探究天国的现象;而上面所有这些事情都要求有神灵和命运的帮助。

Among the Quadi at the Granua.

写于格拉努瓦的奎代。