中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 2

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BEGIN the morning by saying to thyself, I shall meet with the busy-body, the ungrateful, arrogant, deceitful, envious, unsocial. All these things happen to them by reason of their ignorance of what is good and evil. But I who have seen the nature of the good that it is beautiful, and of the bad that it is ugly, and the nature of him who does wrong, that it is akin to me, not only of the same blood or seed, but that it participates in the same intelligence and the same portion of the divinity, I can neither be injured by any of them, for no one can fix on me what is ugly, nor can I be angry with my kinsman, nor hate him, For we are made for co-operation, like feet, like hands, like eyelids, like the rows of the upper and lower teeth. To act against one another then is contrary to nature; and it is acting against one another to be vexed and to turn away.

一日之始就对自己说:我将遇见好管闲事的人、忘恩负义的人、傲慢的人、欺诈的人、嫉妒的人和孤僻的人。他们染有这些品性是因为他们不知道什么是善,什么是恶。但是,我,-作为知道善和恶的性质,知道前者是美后者是丑的人;作为知道做了错事的人们的本性是与我相似,我们不仅具有同样的血液和皮肤,而且分享同样的理智和同样的一分性的人-决不可能被他们中的任何一个人损害,因为任何人都不可能把恶强加于我,我也不可能迁怒于这些与我同类的人,或者憎恨他们。因为,我们是天生要合作的,犹如手足,唇齿和眼睑。那么,相互反对就是违反本性了,就是自寻烦恼和自我排斥。

Whatever this is that I am, it is a little flesh and breath, and the ruling part. Throw away thy books; no longer distract thyself: it is not allowed; but as if thou wast now dying, despise the flesh; it is blood and bones and a network, a contexture of nerves, veins, and arteries. See the breath also, what kind of a thing it is, air, and not always the same, but every moment sent out and again sucked in. The third then is the ruling part: consider thus: Thou art an old man; no longer let this be a slave, no longer be pulled by the strings like a puppet to unsocial movements, no longer either be dissatisfied with thy present lot, or shrink from the future.

不论我是什么人,都只是一小小的肉体、呼吸和支配部分。丢开你的书吧;不要再让你分心,分心是不允许的;但仿佛你现在濒临死亡、轻视这肉体吧;那只是血液、骨骼和一种网状组织,一种神经、静脉和动脉的结构。也看看呼吸,它是一种什么东西?空气,并不总是同样的空气,而是每一刻都在排出和再吸入的空气。那第三就是支配部分了:这样来考虑它,你是一个老人;不要再让这成为一个奴隶,不要再像线拉木偶一样做反社会的运动,不要再不满意你现在的命运,或者躲避将来。

All that is from the gods is full of Providence. That which is from fortune is not separated from nature or without an interweaving and involution with the things which are ordered by Providence. From thence all things flow; and there is besides necessity, and that which is for the advantage of the whole universe, of which thou art a part. But that is good for every part of nature which the nature of the whole brings, and what serves to maintain this nature. Now the universe is preserved, as by the changes of the elements so by the changes of things compounded of the elements. Let these principles be enough for thee, let them always be fixed opinions. But cast away the thirst after books, that thou mayest not die murmuring, but cheerfully, truly, and from thy heart thankful to the gods.

所有从神而来的东西都充满神意。那来自命运的东西并不脱离本性,并非与神命令的事物没有关系和干连。所有的事物都从此流出;此外有一种必然,那是为着整个宇宙的利益的,而你是它的一部分。但整体的本性所带来的,对于本性的每一都是好的,有助于保持这一本性。而现在宇宙是通过各种元素及由这些元素组成的事物的变化保存其存在的。让这些原则对你有足够的力量,让它们总是决定你的意见吧。丢开对书本的渴望,你就能不抱怨着死去,而是欢乐、真诚地在衷心感谢神灵中死去。

Remember how long thou hast been putting off these things, and how often thou hast received an opportunity from the gods, and yet dost not use it. Thou must now at last perceive of what universe thou art a part, and of what administrator of the universe thy existence is an efflux, and that a limit of time is fixed for thee, which if thou dost not use for clearing away the clouds from thy mind, it will go and thou wilt go, and it will never return.

记住你已经把这些事情推迟得够久了,你从神灵得到的机会已够多了,但你没有利用它。你现在终于必须领悟那个你只是其中一部分的宇宙,领悟那种你的存在只是其中一段流逝的宇宙的管理;你只有有限的时间,如果你不用这段时间来清除你灵感上的阴霾;它就将逝去,你亦将逝去,并永不复返。

Every moment think steadily as a Roman and a man to do what thou hast in hand with perfect and simple dignity, and feeling of affection, and freedom, and justice; and to give thyself relief from all other thoughts. And thou wilt give thyself relief, if thou doest every act of thy life as if it were the last, laying aside all carelessness and passionate aversion from the commands of reason, and all hypocrisy, and self-love, and discontent with the portion which has been given to thee. Thou seest how few the things are, the which if a man lays hold of, he is able to live a life which flows in quiet, and is like the existence of the gods; for the gods on their part will require nothing more from him who observes these things.

每时每刻都要坚定地思考,就像一个罗马人,像一个赋有完整而朴实的尊严,怀着友爱、自由和正义之情感去做手头要做的事情的人那样。你要摆脱所有别的思想。如果你做你生活中的每一个行为都仿佛它是最后的行为,排除对理性命令的各种冷漠态度和强烈厌恶,排除秘有虚伪、自爱和对给你的那一份的不满之情,你就将使自己得到解脱。你看到一个人只要把握多么少的东西就能过一种宁静的生活,就会像神的存在一样;因为就神灵来说,他们不会向注意这些事情的人要求更多的东西。

Do wrong to thyself, do wrong to thyself, my soul; but thou wilt no longer have the opportunity of honouring thyself. Every man's life is sufficient. But thine is nearly finished, though thy soul reverences not itself but places thy felicity in the souls of others.

你错待了自己,你错待了自己,我的灵魂,而你将不再有机会来荣耀自身。每个人的生命都是足够的,但你的生命却已近尾声,你的灵魂却还不去关照自身,而是把你的幸福寄予别的灵魂。

Do the things external which fall upon thee distract thee? Give thyself time to learn something new and good, and cease to be whirled around. But then thou must also avoid being carried about the other way. For those too are triflers who have wearied themselves in life by their activity, and yet have no object to which to direct every movement, and, in a word, all their thoughts.

你碰到的外部事物使你分心吗?给出时间来学习新的和好的东西而停止兜圈子吧。但你也必须避免被带到另一条道路。因为那些在生活中被自己的活动弄得精疲力尽的人也是放浪者,他们没有目标来引导每一个行为,总之,他们的所有思想都是无目的的。

Through not observing what is in the mind of another a man has seldom been seen to be unhappy; but those who do not observe the movements of their own minds must of necessity be unhappy.

不要去注意别人心里在想什么,一个人就很少会被看成是不幸福的,而那些不注意他们自己内心的活动的人却必然是不幸的。

This thou must always bear in mind, what is the nature of the whole, and what is my nature, and how this is related to that, and what kind of a part it is of what kind of a whole; and that there is no one who hinders thee from always doing and saying the things which are according to the nature of which thou art a part.

你必须总是把这记在心里:什么是整体的本性,什么是我的本性,两者怎么联系,我的本性是一个什么性质的整体的一部分;没有人阻止你说或者做那符合本性(你是其中的一部分)的事情。

Theophrastus, in his comparison of bad acts- such a comparison as one would make in accordance with the common notions of mankind- says, like a true philosopher, that the offences which are committed through desire are more blameable than those which are committed through anger. For he who is excited by anger seems to turn away from reason with a certain pain and unconscious contraction; but he who offends through desire, being overpowered by pleasure, seems to be in a manner more intemperate and more womanish in his offences. Rightly then, and in a way worthy of philosophy, he said that the offence which is committed with pleasure is more blameable than that which is committed with pain; and on the whole the one is more like a person who has been first wronged and through pain is compelled to be angry; but the other is moved by his own impulse to do wrong, being carried towards doing something by desire.

西奥菲拉斯图斯在他比较各种恶的行为时像一个真正的哲学家那样说(这种比较就像一个人根据人类的共同概念所做的比较):因为欲望而引起的犯罪比那些因愤怒而引起的犯罪更应该受谴责。因为,因愤怒而犯罪的人看来是因某种痛苦和不自觉的患病而失去了理智,但因欲望而犯罪的人却是被快乐所压倒,他的犯罪看来是更放纵和更懦弱。紧接着他又以一种配得上哲学的方式说:因快乐而犯的罪比因痛苦而犯的罪更应该受谴责;总之,后者较像一个人首先被人错待,由于痛苦而陷入愤怒;而前者则是被他自己的冲动驱使做出恶事,是受欲望的牵导。

Since it is possible that thou mayest depart from life this very moment, regulate every act and thought accordingly. But to go away from among men, if there are gods, is not a thing to be afraid of, for the gods will not involve thee in evil; but if indeed they do not exist, or if they have no concern about human affairs, what is it to me to live in a universe devoid of gods or devoid of Providence? But in truth they do exist, and they do care for human things, and they have put all the means in man's power to enable him not to fall into real evils. And as to the rest, if there was anything evil, they would have provided for this also, that it should be altogether in a man's power not to fall into it. Now that which does not make a man worse, how can it make a man's life worse? But neither through ignorance, nor having the knowledge, but not the power to guard against or correct these things, is it possible that the nature of the universe has overlooked them; nor is it possible that it has made so great a mistake, either through want of power or want of skill, that good and evil should happen indiscriminately to the good and the bad. But death certainly, and life, honour and dishonour, pain and pleasure, all these things equally happen to good men and bad, being things which make us neither better nor worse. Therefore they are neither good nor evil.

由于你有可能在此刻辞世,那么相应地调节你的每一行为和思想吧。如果有神灵存在,离开人世并非一件值得害怕的事情,因为神灵将不会使你陷入恶;但如果他们确实不存在,或者他们不关心人类的事务,那生活在一个没有神或神意的宇宙中对你意味着什么呢?而事实上他们是存在的,他们的确关心人类的事情,他们赋予人所有的手段使人不能不陷入真正的恶。至于其他的恶,即便有的话,神灵也不会使人陷入其中的。不陷入恶完全是在一个人的力量范围之内的。那不使一个人变坏的事物,怎么能使一个人的生活变坏呢?但宇宙的本性忽视这些事情是有可能的,但这不是由于无知,也不是因为有知,亦不是因为防止或纠正这些事情的力量,也不可能是因为它缺少力量或技艺,以致犯了如此大的一个错误-使好事和坏事竟然不加区别地降临于善人和恶人身上。但肯定,死生、荣辱、苦乐所有这些事情都同样地发生于善人和恶人,它们并不使我们变好或变坏。所以,这些事物既非善亦非恶。

How quickly all things disappear, in the universe the bodies themselves, but in time the remembrance of them; what is the nature of all sensible things, and particularly those which attract with the bait of pleasure or terrify by pain, or are noised abroad by vapoury fame; how worthless, and contemptible, and sordid, and perishable, and dead they are- all this it is the part of the intellectual faculty to observe. To observe too who these are whose opinions and voices give reputation; what death is, and the fact that, if a man looks at it in itself, and by the abstractive power of reflection resolves into their parts all the things which present themselves to the imagination in it, he will then consider it to be nothing else than an operation of nature; and if any one is afraid of an operation of nature, he is a child. This, however, is not only an operation of nature, but it is also a thing which conduces to the purposes of nature. To observe too how man comes near to the deity, and by what part of him, and when this part of man is so disposed.

所有事物消失得多么快呀!在宇宙中是物体本身的消失,而在时间虽是对它们的记忆的消失。这就是所有可感觉事物的性质,特别是那些伴有快乐的诱惑或骇人的痛苦的事物,或者是那些远播国外的虚浮名声的性质。它们是多么的无价值、可蔑视、肮脏、腐烂和易朽啊!所有这些都是理智能力要注意的。理智能力也要注意那些以意见和言论造成名声的人;注意什么是死亡这一事实:如果一个人观察死亡本身,通过反省的抽象力把所有有关死亡的想像分解为各个部分,他就将把死亡视为不过是自然的一种运转;如果有什么人害怕自然的运转,那他只是个稚气未脱的孩子。无论如何,死亡不仅是自然的一种运转,也是一件有利于自然之目的事情。理智能力也要注意人是怎样接近神的,是通过他的什么部分接近神,以及他的这个部分是在什么时候这样做的。

Nothing is more wretched than a man who traverses everything in a round, and pries into the things beneath the earth, as the poet says, and seeks by conjecture what is in the minds of his neighbours, without perceiving that it is sufficient to attend to the daemon within him, and to reverence it sincerely. And reverence of the daemon consists in keeping it pure from passion and thoughtlessness, and dissatisfaction with what comes from gods and men. For the things from the gods merit veneration for their excellence; and the things from men should be dear to us by reason of kinship; and sometimes even, in a manner, they move our pity by reason of men's ignorance of good and bad; this defect being not less than that which deprives us of the power of distinguishing things that are white and black.

没有比这更悲惨的了:一个人旋转着穿越一切,像诗人说的那样打听地下的事情,猜测他的邻人心里的想法,不知道只要专注于他心中的神并真诚地尊奉他就足够了。对心中神的尊奉在于使心灵免于激情和无价值的思想而保持纯洁,不要不满于那来自神灵和人们的东西。因为,来自神灵的东西,因其优越性是值得我们尊敬的;而来自人的东西,因我们与他们是亲族的缘故是我们应当珍重的。有时他们甚至在某种程度上因对善恶的无知而引起我们的怜悯,这种不辨善恶的缺陷并不亚于不辨黑白的缺陷。

Though thou shouldst be going to live three thousand years, and as many times ten thousand years, still remember that no man loses any other life than this which he now lives, nor lives any other than this which he now loses. The longest and shortest are thus brought to the same. For the present is the same to all, though that which perishes is not the same; and so that which is lost appears to be a mere moment. For a man cannot lose either the past or the future: for what a man has not, how can any one take this from him? These two things then thou must bear in mind; the one, that all things from eternity are of like forms and come round in a circle, and that it makes no difference whether a man shall see the same things during a hundred years or two hundred, or an infinite time; and the second, that the longest liver and he who will die soonest lose just the same. For the present is the only thing of which a man can be deprived, if it is true that this is the only thing which he has, and that a man cannot lose a thing if he has it not.

虽然你打算活三千年,活数万年,但还是要记住:任何人失去的不是什么别的生活,而只是他现在所过的生活;任何人所过的也不是什么别的生活,而只是他现在失去的生活。最长和最短的生命就如此成为同一。虽然那已逝去的并不相同,但现在对于所有人都是同样的。所以那丧失的看来就只是一单纯的片刻。因为一个人不可能丧失过去或未来-一个人没有的东西,有什么人能从他夺走呢?这样你就必须把这两件事牢记在心:一是所有来自永恒的事物犹如形式,是循环往复的,一个人是在一百年还是在两千年或无限的时间里看到同样的事物,这对他都是一回事;二是生命最长者和濒临死亡者失去的是同样的东西。因为,惟一能从一个人那里夺走的只是现在。如果这是真的,即一个人只拥有现在,那么一个人就不可能丧失一件他并不拥有的东西。

Remember that all is opinion. For what was said by the Cynic Monimus is manifest: and manifest too is the use of what was said, if a man receives what may be got out of it as far as it is true.

要记住一切都是意见。因为犬儒派摩尼穆斯所说的话是很显然的,这些话的用途也是很显然的,只要一个人从这些真实的话中汲取教益。

The soul of man does violence to itself, first of all, when it becomes an abscess and, as it were, a tumour on the universe, so far as it can. For to be vexed at anything which happens is a separation of ourselves from nature, in some part of which the natures of all other things are contained. In the next place, the soul does violence to itself when it turns away from any man, or even moves towards him with the intention of injuring, such as are the souls of those who are angry. In the third place, the soul does violence to itself when it is overpowered by pleasure or by pain. Fourthly, when it plays a part, and does or says anything insincerely and untruly. Fifthly, when it allows any act of its own and any movement to be without an aim, and does anything thoughtlessly and without considering what it is, it being right that even the smallest things be done with reference to an end; and the end of rational animals is to follow the reason and the law of the most ancient city and polity.

人的灵魂的确摧残自身,首先是在它变成宇宙的一个肿块的,或者说,就其可能而言变成一个赘生物的时候。因为,为发生的事情烦恼就是使我们自己脱离本性-所有别的事物的本性都包含在这一本性的某一部分之中。其次,灵魂摧残自身是在它被什么人排斥甚或怀着恶意攻击的时候,那些愤怒的人的灵魂就是这样。第三,灵魂摧残自身是在它被快乐或痛苦压倒的时候。第四,灵魂摧残自身是在它扮演一个角色,言行不真诚的时候。第五,是在它让自己的行动漫无目标,不加考虑和不辨真相地做事的时候,因为甚至最小的事情也只有在参照一个来做时才是对的,而理性动物的目的就是要遵循理性和最古老的城邦和政府的法律。

Of human life the time is a point, and the substance is in a flux, and the perception dull, and the composition of the whole body subject to putrefaction, and the soul a whirl, and fortune hard to divine, and fame a thing devoid of judgement. And, to say all in a word, everything which belongs to the body is a stream, and what belongs to the soul is a dream and vapour, and life is a warfare and a stranger's sojourn, and after-fame is oblivion. What then is that which is able to conduct a man? One thing and only one, philosophy. But this consists in keeping the daemon within a man free from violence and unharmed, superior to pains and pleasures, doing nothing without purpose, nor yet falsely and with hypocrisy, not feeling the need of another man's doing or not doing anything; and besides, accepting all that happens, and all that is allotted, as coming from thence, wherever it is, from whence he himself came; and, finally, waiting for death with a cheerful mind, as being nothing else than a dissolution of the elements of which every living being is compounded. But if there is no harm to the elements themselves in each continually changing into another, why should a man have any apprehension about the change and dissolution of all the elements? For it is according to nature, and nothing is evil which is according to nature.

在人的生活中,时间是瞬息即逝的一个点,实体处在流动之中,知觉是迟钝的,整个身体的结构容易分解,灵魂是一涡流,命运之谜不可解,名声并非根据明智的判断。一言以蔽之,属于身体的一切只是一道激流,属于灵魂的只是一个梦幻,生命是一场战争,一个过客的旅居,身后的名声也迅速落入忘川。那么一个人靠什么指引呢?惟有哲学。而这就在于使一个人心中的神不受摧残,不受伤害,免于痛苦和快乐,不做无目的事情,而且毫不虚伪和欺瞒,并不感到需要别人做或不做任何事情,此外,接受所有对他发生的事情,所有分配给他的份额,不管它们是什么,就好象它们是从那儿,从他自己所来的地方来的;最后,以一种欢乐的心情等待死亡,把死亡看做不是别的,只是组成一切生物的元素的分解。而如果在一个事物不断变化的过程中元素本身并没有受到损害,为什么一个人竟忧虑所有这些元素的变化和分解呢?因为死是合乎本性的,而合乎本性的东西都不是恶。

This in Carnuntum.