中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 3

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WE OUGHT to consider not only that our life is daily wasting away and a smaller part of it is left, but another thing also must be taken into the account, that if a man should live longer, it is quite uncertain whether the understanding will still continue sufficient for the comprehension of things, and retain the power of contemplation which strives to acquire the knowledge of the divine and the human. For if he shall begin to fall into dotage, perspiration and nutrition and imagination and appetite, and whatever else there is of the kind, will not fail; but the power of making use of ourselves, and filling up the measure of our duty, and clearly separating all appearances, and considering whether a man should now depart from life, and whatever else of the kind absolutely requires a disciplined reason, all this is already extinguished. We must make haste then, not only because we are daily nearer to death, but also because the conception of things and the understanding of them cease first.

我们不仅应当考虑到我们的生命每日每时都在耗费,剩下的部分越来越少,而且应当考虑另一件事情,即如果一个人竟然活得久些,也没有多大把握说理解力还能继续足以使他领悟事物,还能保持那种努力获得有关神和人的知识和思考能力。因为他将在排泄、营养、想像和胃口或别的类似能力衰退之前,就开始堕入老年性昏聩,而那种运用我们自己的能力,满足我们义务标准的能力,清晰地区分各种现象的能力,考虑一个人是否应当现在辞世的能力诸如此类的能力绝对需要一种训练有素的理性,而这种性整个地已经衰退了。所以我们必须抓紧时间,这不仅是因为我们在一天天地接近死亡,而且因为对事物的观照和理解力将先行消失。

We ought to observe also that even the things which follow after the things which are produced according to nature contain something pleasing and attractive. For instance, when bread is baked some parts are split at the surface, and these parts which thus open, and have a certain fashion contrary to the purpose of the baker's art, are beautiful in a manner, and in a peculiar way excite a desire for eating. And again, figs, when they are quite ripe, gape open; and in the ripe olives the very circumstance of their being near to rottenness adds a peculiar beauty to the fruit. And the ears of corn bending down, and the lion's eyebrows, and the foam which flows from the mouth of wild boars, and many other things- though they are far from being beautiful, if a man should examine them severally- still, because they are consequent upon the things which are formed by nature, help to adorn them, and they please the mind; so that if a man should have a feeling and deeper insight with respect to the things which are produced in the universe, there is hardly one of those which follow by way of consequence which will not seem to him to be in a manner disposed so as to give pleasure. And so he will see even the real gaping jaws of wild beasts with no less pleasure than those which painters and sculptors show by imitation; and in an old woman and an old man he will be able to see a certain maturity and comeliness; and the attractive loveliness of young persons he will be able to look on with chaste eyes; and many such things will present themselves, not pleasing to every man, but to him only who has become truly familiar with nature and her works.

我们也应当注意到:甚至在那合乎自然地产生的事物之后出现的事物也令人欣悦和有吸引力。例如,当面包在烘烤时表面出现了某些裂痕,这些如此裂开的部分有某种不含面包师目的的形式,但在某种意义上仍然是美的,以一种特殊的方式刺激着食欲。再如无花果,当它们熟时也会裂开口;成熟的橄榄恰在它们接近腐烂时给果实增加了一种特殊的美。谷穗的低垂,狮子的睫毛,从野猪嘴里流出的泡沫,以及很多别的东西,一个人如果孤立地考察它们,虽然会觉得它们是不够美的,但由于它们是自然形成的事物的结果,所以它们还是有助于装饰它们,使心灵愉悦。所以,如果一个人对宇宙中产生的事物有一种感觉和较深的洞察力,那些作为其结果出现的事物在他看来就几乎都是以某种引起快乐的方式安排的。所以,他在观察真正的野兽的张开的下颚时,并不比看画家和雕刻家所模仿的少一些快乐,他能在一个老年人那里看到某种成熟和合宜,能以纯净的眼光打量年青人的魅力和可爱。很多这样的事情都要出现,它们并不使每个人愉悦,而是使真正熟稔自然及其作品的人愉悦。

Hippocrates after curing many diseases himself fell sick and died. The Chaldaei foretold the deaths of many, and then fate caught them too. Alexander, and Pompeius, and Caius Caesar, after so often completely destroying whole cities, and in battle cutting to pieces many ten thousands of cavalry and infantry, themselves too at last departed from life. Heraclitus, after so many speculations on the conflagration of the universe, was filled with water internally and died smeared all over with mud. And lice destroyed Democritus; and other lice killed Socrates. What means all this? Thou hast embarked, thou hast made the voyage, thou art come to shore; get out. If indeed to another life, there is no want of gods, not even there. But if to a state without sensation, thou wilt cease to be held by pains and pleasures, and to be a slave to the vessel, which is as much inferior as that which serves it is superior: for the one is intelligence and deity; the other is earth and corruption.

希波克拉底在治愈许多病人之后自己病死了。占星家们预告了许多人的死亡,然后命运也把他们攫走。亚历山大、庞培、凯撒在粉碎数十万计的骑兵和步兵,频繁地把整个城市夷为平地之后,他们最后也告别了人世。赫拉克利特在大量地思考了宇宙的火之后,最后死于水肿病,死时污泥弄脏了全身。虫豸毁了德漠克利特,别的虫豸杀死了苏格拉底。所有这些意味着什么呢?你上船,航行,近岸,然后下来。如果的确是航向另一个生命,那就不会需要神,甚至在那儿也不需要。但如果是航向一个无知无觉之乡,你将不会再受痛苦和快乐的掌握,不会再是身体的奴隶,而身体有多么下贱,它所服务的对象就有多么优越,因为后者是理智和神性,前者则是泥土和速朽。

Do not waste the remainder of thy life in thoughts about others, when thou dost not refer thy thoughts to some object of common utility. For thou losest the opportunity of doing something else when thou hast such thoughts as these, What is such a person doing, and why, and what is he saying, and what is he thinking of, and what is he contriving, and whatever else of the kind makes us wander away from the observation of our own ruling power. We ought then to check in the series of our thoughts everything that is without a purpose and useless, but most of all the over-curious feeling and the malignant; and a man should use himself to think of those things only about which if one should suddenly ask, What hast thou now in thy thoughts? With perfect openness thou mightest, immediately answer, This or That; so that from thy words it should be plain that everything in thee is simple and benevolent, and such as befits a social animal, and one that cares not for thoughts about pleasure or sensual enjoyments at all, nor has any rivalry or envy and suspicion, or anything else for which thou wouldst blush if thou shouldst say that thou hadst it in thy mind. For the man who is such and no longer delays being among the number of the best, is like a priest and minister of the gods, using too the deity which is planted within him, which makes the man uncontaminated by pleasure, unharmed by any pain, untouched by any insult, feeling no wrong, a fighter in the noblest fight, one who cannot be overpowered by any passion, dyed deep with justice, accepting with all his soul everything which happens and is assigned to him as his portion; and not often, nor yet without great necessity and for the general interest, imagining what another says, or does, or thinks. For it is only what belongs to himself that he makes the matter for his activity; and he constantly thinks of that which is allotted to himself out of the sum total of things, and he makes his own acts fair, and he is persuaded that his own portion is good. For the lot which is assigned to each man is carried along with him and carries him along with it. And he remembers also that every rational animal is his kinsman, and that to care for all men is according to man's nature; and a man should hold on to the opinion not of all, but of those only who confessedly live according to nature. But as to those who live not so, he always bears in mind what kind of men they are both at home and from home, both by night and by day, and what they are, and with what men they live an impure life. Accordingly, he does not value at all the praise which comes from such men, since they are not even satisfied with themselves.

当你不把你的思想指向公共福利的某个目标时,不要把你剩下的生命浪费在思考别人上。因为,当你有这思想时,你就丧失了做别的事情的机会。这个人在做什么,为什么做,他说了什么,想了什么,争论什么,注意所有这些事情将使我们忽略了观察我们自己的支配力量。所以我们应当在我们的思想行进中抑制一切无目的和无价值的想法,以及大量好奇和恶意的情感;一个人应当仅仅使他想这样一些事:即当别人突然问:"你现在想什么?"他都能完全坦白地直接回答:想这个或那个,并且从你的话里清楚地表明:你心中的一切都是朴实和仁爱的,都有利于一个社会动物,你是一个全然不关注快乐或感官享受的人,也没有敌意、嫉妒和疑心,或者有任何别的你说出来会感到脸红的念头。因为,一个毫不拖延地如此回答的人是属于最好的人之列,犹如神灵的一个使者,他也运用植入他内心的神性,那神性使他不受快乐的玷污,不受痛苦的伤害,不被任何结果接触,也不感受任何恶,是最高尚的战斗中的一个战士;他不被任何激情所压倒,深深渴望正义,满心欢喜地接受一切对他发生和作为他所份额分配给他的事物;他不是经常、但也不是无需为了普遍利益来考虑别人的言行和思想。由于惟一属于他的是他为自己的行为做出决定,他不断地思考什么是从事物的总体中分配给他的,为怎样使自己的行为正直,说服自己相信分配给他的一份是好的。因为那分配给各人的命运是由各人把握的,命运也把握着他。他也记住每个理性动物都是他的同胞,记住关心所有人是符合人的本性的,一个人不应当听从所有人的意见,而只是听从那些明白地按照本性生活的人们的意见。但是对于那些不如此生活的人,他总是记住他们在家是什么样的人,离家是什么样的人;白天是什么样的人,晚上是什么样的人;记住他们做什么工作,他们和什么人在一起过一种不纯洁的生活。相应地,他就一点也不看重来自这一类人的赞扬,因为这类人甚至对自己也是不满的。

Labour not unwillingly, nor without regard to the common interest, nor without due consideration, nor with distraction; nor let studied ornament set off thy thoughts, and be not either a man of many words, or busy about too many things. And further, let the deity which is in thee be the guardian of a living being, manly and of ripe age, and engaged in matter political, and a Roman, and a ruler, who has taken his post like a man waiting for the signal which summons him from life, and ready to go, having need neither of oath nor of any man's testimony. Be cheerful also, and seek not external help nor the tranquility which others give. A man then must stand erect, not be kept erect by others.

不要不情愿地劳作,不要不尊重公共利益,不要不加以适当的考虑,不要分心,不要虚有学问的外表而丧失自己的思想,也不要成为喋喋不休或忙忙碌碌的人。而且,让你心中的神成为一个保护者,一个有生命的存在的保护者,一个介入政治的成熟的男子的保护者,一个罗马人,一个统治者的保护者。这个统治者像一个等待从生活中召唤他的信号的人一样接受了自己的职位,无需誓约也无需别人的证言。同时也欢乐吧,不寻求外在的帮助也不要别人给的安宁。这样,一个人就必然笔直的站立,而不是让别人扶着直立。

If thou findest in human life anything better than justice, truth, temperance, fortitude, and, in a word, anything better than thy own mind's self-satisfaction in the things which it enables thee to do according to right reason, and in the condition that is assigned to thee without thy own choice; if, I say, thou seest anything better than this, turn to it with all thy soul, and enjoy that which thou hast found to be the best. But if nothing appears to be better than the deity which is planted in thee, which has subjected to itself all thy appetites, and carefully examines all the impressions, and, as Socrates said, has detached itself from the persuasions of sense, and has submitted itself to the gods, and cares for mankind; if thou findest everything else smaller and of less value than this, give place to nothing else, for if thou dost once diverge and incline to it, thou wilt no longer without distraction be able to give the preference to that good thing which is thy proper possession and thy own; for it is not right that anything of any other kind, such as praise from the many, or power, or enjoyment of pleasure, should come into competition with that which is rationally and politically or practically good. All these things, even though they may seem to adapt themselves to the better things in a small degree, obtain the superiority all at once, and carry us away. But do thou, I say, simply and freely choose the better, and hold to it.- But that which is useful is the better.- Well then, if it is useful to thee as a rational being, keep to it; but if it is only useful to thee as an animal, say so, and maintain thy judgement without arrogance: only take care that thou makest the inquiry by a sure method.

假如你在人类生活中发现什么比正义、真理、节制和坚忍更好的东西,一句话,发现比你自己心灵的自足更好的东西-这种自足能使你在非你选择而分派给你的条件下,按照正确的理性行事,我说,如果你看到了比这更好的东西,就以全部身心转向它,享受那你认为是最好的东西的快乐吧。然而,如果并没有什么东西比这更好,比培植在你心中的神性更好-它检视你所有的爱好,仔细考察你所有印象,并像苏格拉底所说,使自身摆脱感官的诱惑,把自身交付给神灵并关心人类;-如果你发现所有别的一切都不如它,比它价值要低,就不要给别的东西以地位吧,因为如果你一旦走上岔路、倾向于别的东西,你就将不再能够集中精力偏爱于那真正适合和属于你的善的事物了,因为,让任何别的东西-比方说众口称赞、权力或享受快乐-来同那在理性方面,在政治或实践中善的东西竞争是不对的。所有那些东西,即使它们看上去可以在加以限制的条件下使之适应于更好的事物,但它们会马上占据优势,把我们带走。所以我说,你要径直选择那更好的东西,并且坚持它-可是你说,有用的就是更好的-那么好,如果它对作为一个理性存在的你有用,就坚持它吧;但如果它只是对于作为一个动物的你有用,那就要拒绝它,不要自傲地坚持你的判断,而仅仅关心以一种确当的方法来探究。

Never value anything as profitable to thyself which shall compel thee to break thy promise, to lose thy self-respect, to hate any man, to suspect, to curse, to act the hypocrite, to desire anything which needs walls and curtains: for he who has preferred to everything intelligence and daemon and the worship of its excellence, acts no tragic part, does not groan, will not need either solitude or much company; and, what is chief of all, he will live without either pursuing or flying from death; but whether for a longer or a shorter time he shall have the soul inclosed in the body, he cares not at all: for even if he must depart immediately, he will go as readily as if he were going to do anything else which can be done with decency and order; taking care of this only all through life, that his thoughts turn not away from anything which belongs to an intelligent animal and a member of a civil community.

不要把任何这样的事情评价为是对你有利的:即那些使你不守诺言、丧失自尊、憎恨、多疑、苛责、虚伪和欲望一切需要墙和幕的东西的事情,因为那更喜欢他自己的理性、神灵并崇拜神灵的人,他不扮演悲剧的角色,不呻吟,不需要独入或很多伙伴,最重要的是,他将在生活中不受死的诱惑也不逃避死亡,对于他的灵魂究竟在身体中寄寓多久,他是完全不关心的。因为,即便他必须马上离去,他亦将乐意地离去,就仿佛他要去做别的可以正派和体面地去做的事情一样;他在全部的生命中只关心这一点:即他的思想不要离开那属于一个理智的人、属于一个公民团体的人的一切。

In the mind of one who is chastened and purified thou wilt find no corrupt matter, nor impurity, nor any sore skinned over. Nor is his life incomplete when fate overtakes him, as one may say of an actor who leaves the stage before ending and finishing the play. Besides, there is in him nothing servile, nor affected, nor too closely bound to other things, nor yet detached from other things, nothing worthy of blame, nothing which seeks a hiding-place.

在进行磨炼和净化的一个人的心灵中,你不会发现任何腐朽,任何不法和任何愈合的伤口,当命运就像人们所说的使演员在剧终前离开舞台一样夺走他时,他的生命并非就因此是不完全的。此外,在他心中没有任何奴性,没有任何矫饰,他不是太紧地束缚于其他事物,同时又不是同它们分离,他无所指责,亦无所逃避。

Reverence the faculty which produces opinion. On this faculty it entirely depends whether there shall exist in thy ruling part any opinion inconsistent with nature and the constitution of the rational animal. And this faculty promises freedom from hasty judgement, and friendship towards men, and obedience to the gods.

要尊重产生意见的那种能力。在你的支配部分里是否存在着与理性动物的本性和气质不相容的意见,完全依赖于这种能力。这种能力将使你不致草率判断,使你对人友善,对神服从。

Throwing away then all things, hold to these only which are few; and besides bear in mind that every man lives only this present time, which is an indivisible point, and that all the rest of his life is either past or it is uncertain. Short then is the time which every man lives, and small the nook of the earth where he lives; and short too the longest posthumous fame, and even this only continued by a succession of poor human beings, who will very soon die, and who know not even themselves, much less him who died long ago.

那么把所有的东西丢开,只执着于这很少数的事情吧;此外还要记住:每个人都生存在现在这个时间里,现在是一个不可分的点,而他生命的其他部分不是已经过去就是尚未确定。因此每个人生存的时间都是短暂的,他在地上居住的那个角落是狭小的,最长久的死后名声也是短暂的,甚至这名声也只是被可怜的一代代后人所持续,这些人也将很快死去,他们甚至于不知道自己,更不必说早已死去的人了。

To the aids which have been mentioned let this one still be added:- Make for thyself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to thee, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell thyself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to thee in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole, and what with reference to man, who is a citizen of the highest city, of which all other cities are like families; what each thing is, and of what it is composed, and how long it is the nature of this thing to endure which now makes an impression on me, and what virtue I have need of with respect to it, such as gentleness, manliness, truth, fidelity, simplicity, contentment, and the rest. Wherefore, on every occasion a man should say: this comes from God; and this is according to the apportionment and spinning of the thread of destiny, and such-like coincidence and chance; and this is from one of the same stock, and a kinsman and partner, one who knows not however what is according to his nature. But I know; for this reason I behave towards him according to the natural law of fellowship with benevolence and justice. At the same time however in things indifferent I attempt to ascertain the value of each.

为了加强上面所说的,让我们补充这一段:你对呈现于你的事物为自己下一定义或做一描述,以便清楚地从其实体,从其袒露,从其完整性来看看它是何种性质的事物,告诉你自己它适当的名称,以及组成它的各种事物(它以后将又分解为这些事物)的名称。因为没有什么比心灵的飞升更具有创造性的了,它能系统和真实地考察在生活中呈现于你面前的所有对象,总是凝视着事物以便同时看清这是一个什么性质的宇宙;万事万物在其中各起什么作用;相对于整体各有什么价值,相对于人又各有什么价值(人是至高之城的一人公民,所有其他的城都像是至高之城的下属);每一事物是什么,它是由什么东西组成,那现在给我印象的事物又能持续多久,我需要以什么德性对待它,比方说,文雅、果决、真诚、忠实、简朴、满足等等。因此,一个人在任何环境中都应该说,这来自神,是按照命运之线的配置和纺织,或按照巧合和机会这样一些东西而安排的;说这些事是来自与我同一根源的人,来自一个是我的同胞和伙伴、然而却不知道什么事情合乎他本性的人。但是我作为知道什么事情是合乎本性的人,所以要根据同胞之情的自然法以仁爱和公正待他们。而在同时,对这些我漠然置之的事物,我又要试图确定每一个的价值。

If thou workest at that which is before thee, following right reason seriously, vigorously, calmly, without allowing anything else to distract thee, but keeping thy divine part pure, as if thou shouldst be bound to give it back immediately; if thou holdest to this, expecting nothing, fearing nothing, but satisfied with thy present activity according to nature, and with heroic truth in every word and sound which thou utterest, thou wilt live happy. And there is no man who is able to prevent this.

当你做摆在你面前的工作时,你要认真地遵循正确的理性,精力充沛,宁静致远,不分心于任何别的事情,而保持你神圣的部分纯净,仿佛你必定要直接把它归还似的;若你坚持这一点,无所欲望亦无所畏惧,满足于你现在合乎本性的活动,满足于你说出的每个词和音节中的勇敢的真诚,你就能生存得幸福。没有任何人能阻止这一点。

As physicians have always their instruments and knives ready for cases which suddenly require their skill, so do thou have principles ready for the understanding of things divine and human, and for doing everything, even the smallest, with a recollection of the bond which unites the divine and human to one another. For neither wilt thou do anything well which pertains to man without at the same time having a reference to things divine; nor the contrary.

就像医生总是要备好他们的器具和手术好以待突然需要他们技艺的病人一样,你也要通过回忆那把神和人统一起来的契约而备有一些原则,用来理解和人的事物,知道如何做一切甚至最小的事情。因为,若是你不同时参照神的事物,就不会把有关人的所有事情做好,反之亦然。

No longer wander at hazard; for neither wilt thou read thy own memoirs, nor the acts of the ancient Romans and Hellenes, and the selections from books which thou wast reserving for thy old age. Hasten then to the end which thou hast before thee, and throwing away idle hopes, come to thy own aid, if thou carest at all for thyself, while it is in thy power.

不要再随便地游荡,因为你将面临自己记忆力的衰退,不再能追忆古代罗马和希腊人的行为,也读不成你为自己晚年保存的书籍。那么抓紧你前面的最后一些日子,丢开无用的希望,来自己援助自己,如果你完全关心自己的话,而这是在你的力量范围之内的。

They know not how many things are signified by the words stealing, sowing, buying, keeping quiet, seeing what ought to be done; for this is not effected by the eyes, but by another kind of vision.

他们不知道有多少事情是通过词语的偷窃、播种和购买来进行的,保持宁静吧,考察应当做什么,因为这不受眼睛而是受另一种观照力的影响。

Body, soul, intelligence: to the body belong sensations, to the soul appetites, to the intelligence principles. To receive the impressions of forms by means of appearances belongs even to animals; to be pulled by the strings of desire belongs both to wild beasts and to men who have made themselves into women, and to a Phalaris and a Nero: and to have the intelligence that guides to the things which appear suitable belongs also to those who do not believe in the gods, and who betray their country, and do their impure deeds when they have shut the doors. If then everything else is common to all that I have mentioned, there remains that which is peculiar to the good man, to be pleased and content with what happens, and with the thread which is spun for him; and not to defile the divinity which is planted in his breast, nor disturb it by a crowd of images, but to preserve it tranquil, following it obediently as a god, neither saying anything contrary to the truth, nor doing anything contrary to justice. And if all men refuse to believe that he lives a simple, modest, and contented life, he is neither angry with any of them, nor does he deviate from the way which leads to the end of life, to which a man ought to come pure, tranquil, ready to depart, and without any compulsion perfectly reconciled to his lot.

身体、灵魂、理智;感觉属于身体;爱好属于灵魂;原则属于理智。通过现象而得到形式的印象-这种能力甚至也为动物所拥有;被一连串的欲望所推动-这既属于野兽也属于把自己变成女人的男人,等于是一个法勒里斯和一个尼禄;拥有指导那看来合适的事物的理智-这也属于那些不信神的人,那些背叛祖国、关起门来做坏事的人。那么,如果所有别的一工于我刚提到的这些人都是共同的,还留下什么为善良的人们所独有呢?那就是对所有发生的事情,对为他而纺的命运之线感到满意和愉悦;就是玷污和不以一堆形象搅乱植入他心中的神性,而是使它保持宁静,把它作为一个神而忠顺地服从它,决不说任何违背真理的话,不做违背正义的事。即使所有别人都不相信他是过着一种简朴、谦虚和满足的生活,他也决不对他们中的任何一个人感到愤怒,也不偏离那引到生命的终结的这条道路,循此一个人应当达到纯粹,宁静,乐意离去,没有任何强迫地完全安心于他的命运。