中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 5

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IN THE morning when thou risest unwillingly, let this thought be present- I am rising to the work of a human being. Why then am I dissatisfied if I am going to do the things for which I exist and for which I was brought into the world? Or have I been made for this, to lie in the bed-clothes and keep myself warm?- But this is more pleasant.- Dost thou exist then to take thy pleasure, and not at all for action or exertion? Dost thou not see the little plants, the little birds, the ants, the spiders, the bees working together to put in order their several parts of the universe? And art thou unwilling to do the work of a human being, and dost thou not make haste to do that which is according to thy nature?- But it is necessary to take rest also.- It is necessary: however nature has fixed bounds to this too: she has fixed bounds both to eating and drinking, and yet thou goest beyond these bounds, beyond what is sufficient; yet in thy acts it is not so, but thou stoppest short of what thou canst do. So thou lovest not thyself, for if thou didst, thou wouldst love thy nature and her will. But those who love their several arts exhaust themselves in working at them unwashed and without food; but thou valuest thy own own nature less than the turner values the turning art, or the dancer the dancing art, or the lover of money values his money, or the vainglorious man his little glory. And such men, when they have a violent affection to a thing, choose neither to eat nor to sleep rather than to perfect the things which they care for. But are the acts which concern society more vile in thy eyes and less worthy of thy labour?

早晨当你不情愿地起床时,让这一思想出现-我正起来去做一个人的工作。如果我是要去做 我因此而存在,因此而被带入这一世界的工作,那么我有什么不满意呢?难道我是为了躲在 温暖的被子里睡眠而生的吗?-但这是较愉快的。-那你的存在是为了获取快乐,而全然不 是为了行动和尽力吗?你没有看到小小的植物、小鸟、蚂蚁、蜘蛛、蜜蜂都在一起工作,从 而有条不紊地尽它们在宇宙中的职分吗?你不愿做一个人的工作,不赶快做那合乎你本性的 事吗?-但休息也是必要的。-休息是必要的,但自然也为这确定了界限,她为吃喝规定了 界限,但你还是越过了这些限制,超出了足够的范围;而你的行动却不是这样,在还没有做 你能做的之前就停止了。所有你不爱你自己,因为,如果你爱,你就将爱你的本性及其意志。 那些热爱他们各自的技艺的人都在工作中忙得精疲力尽,他们没有洗浴,没有食物;而你对 你的本性的尊重却甚至还不如杂耍艺人尊重杂耍技艺、舞蹈家尊重舞蹈技艺、聚财者尊重他 的金钱,或者虚荣者尊重他小小的光荣。这些人,当他们对一件事怀有一种强烈的爱好时, 宁肯不吃不睡也要完善他们所关心的事情。而在你的眼里,难道有益于社会的行为是讨厌的, 竟不值得你劳作吗?

How easy it is to repel and to wipe away every impression which is troublesome or unsuitable, and immediately to be in all tranquility.

这是多么容易啊:抵制和清除一切令人苦恼或不适当的印象,迅速进入完全的宁静。

Judge every word and deed which are according to nature to be fit for thee; and be not diverted by the blame which follows from any people nor by their words, but if a thing is good to be done or said, do not consider it unworthy of thee. For those persons have their peculiar leading principle and follow their peculiar movement; which things do not thou regard, but go straight on, following thy own nature and the common nature; and the way of both is one.

判断每一符合你本性的言行,不要受来自任何人的谴责或话语的影响,而如果做说一件事是 好的,不要把它想做对你是无价值的。因为那些人有他们特殊的指导原则,遵循着他们特殊 的活动,你不要重视那些事情,而是直接前进,遵从你自己的本性和共同的本性,遵循两者 合而为一的道路。

I go through the things which happen according to nature until I shall fall and rest, breathing out my breath into that element out of which I daily draw it in, and falling upon that earth out of which my father collected the seed, and my mother the blood, and my nurse the milk; out of which during so many years I have been supplied with food and drink; which bears me when I tread on it and abuse it for so many purposes.

我按照本性经历所发生的事情,直到我倒下安息,直到我呼出的气息化为我每日吸入的那种 元素,直到我倒在这块大地上-我的父亲从它收集种子,我的母亲从它获得血液,我的奶妈 从它吸取奶奶汁,在许多年里我从它得到食物和饮的供应;当我践踏它,为许多的目的滥用 它时,它默默地承受着我。

Thou sayest, Men cannot admire the sharpness of thy wits.- Be it so: but there are many other things of which thou canst not say, I am not formed for them by nature. Show those qualities then which are altogether in thy power, sincerity, gravity, endurance of labour, aversion to pleasure, contentment with thy portion and with few things, benevolence, frankness, no love of superfluity, freedom from trifling magnanimity. Dost thou not see how many qualities thou art immediately able to exhibit, in which there is no excuse of natural incapacity and unfitness, and yet thou still remainest voluntarily below the mark? Or art thou compelled through being defectively furnished by nature to murmur, and to be stingy, and to flatter, and to find fault with thy poor body, and to try to please men, and to make great display, and to be so restless in thy mind? No, by the gods: but thou mightest have been delivered from these things long ago. Only if in truth thou canst be charged with being rather slow and dull of comprehension, thou must exert thyself about this also, not neglecting it nor yet taking pleasure in thy dulness.

你说,人们不能欣赏你的机智-就算是这样,但也有许多别的事情是你不能这样说的,有许 多事情是我先天下适合的。那么展示那些完全在你力量范围内的品质吧:真诚,严肃,忍受 劳作,厌恶快乐,满足于你的份额和很少的事物,仁慈,坦白,不爱多余之物,免除轻率的 慷慨。你没有看到你马上能展示多少品质吗,那些品质都是你没有借口说是天生无能或不适 合的,你还愿意使自己保留在标准之下吗?难道你是先天就不健全以致不能抱怨、吝啬、谄 媚、不满于你可怜的身体、试图取悦于人,出风头和内心紧张不安吗?不,的确,你本来可 以早就从这些事情中解脱出来了,除非你的理解力的确天生就相当迟钝和麻木,但你也必须 在这方面训练自己,不忽视它也不以你的迟钝为乐。

One man, when he has done a service to another, is ready to set it down to his account as a favour conferred. Another is not ready to do this, but still in his own mind he thinks of the man as his debtor, and he knows what he has done. A third in a manner does not even know what he has done, but he is like a vine which has produced grapes, and seeks for nothing more after it has once produced its proper fruit. As a horse when he has run, a dog when he has tracked the game, a bee when it has made the honey, so a man when he has done a good act, does not call out for others to come and see, but he goes on to another act, as a vine goes on to produce again the grapes in season.- Must a man then be one of these, who in a manner act thus without observing it?- Yes.- But this very thing is necessary, the observation of what a man is doing: for, it may be said, it is characteristic of the social animal to perceive that he is working in a social manner, and indeed to wish that his social partner also should perceive it.- It is true what thou sayest, but thou dost not rightly understand what is now said: and for this reason thou wilt become one of those of whom I spoke before, for even they are misled by a certain show of reason. But if thou wilt choose to understand the meaning of what is said, do not fear that for this reason thou wilt omit any social act.

有一个人,当他为另一个人做了一件好事,就准备把它作为一种施惠记到他的账上,还有一 个人不准备这样做,但还是在心里把这个人看做是他的受惠者,而且他记着他做了的事情。 第三个人在某种程度上甚至不知道他所做的,他就像一株生产葡萄的葡萄藤一样,在它一旦 结出它应有的果实以后就不寻求更多的东西。一匹马在它奔跑时,一只狗在它追猎过,一只 蜜蜂在它酿造蜜以后也是这样,所以一个人在他做了一件好事之后,也不应要求别人来看, 而是继续做另一件好事,正像一株葡萄藤在下一个季节继续结果一样。-那么一个人必须以 某种方式如此行动且不注意它吗?-是的。-但这也是必要的,即观察一个人正在做的事情。 因为,可以说,察知他正以一种有益社会的方式工作,并的确希望他的社会同伴也察知它是 社会动物特征。-你说得对,但你并没有理解现在所说的:因此你将成为我前面说过的那些 人中的一个,因为甚至他们也因理性的某种展示而误入歧途。但如果你愿意理解现在所说的 话的意义,就不要害怕你将因此忽略任何有益社会的行为。

A prayer of the Athenians: Rain, rain, O dear Zeus, down on the ploughed fields of the Athenians and on the plains.- In truth we ought not to pray at all, or we ought to pray in this simple and noble fashion.

雅典人中的一个祈祷是:降雨吧,降雨吧,亲爱的宙斯,使雨降落到雅典人耕过的土地上, 降落到平原上。-我们确实不应当祈祷,不然就应以这种简单和高贵的方式祈祷。

Just as we must understand when it is said, That Aesculapius prescribed to this man horse-exercise, or bathing in cold water or going without shoes; so we must understand it when it is said, That the nature of the universe prescribed to this man disease or mutilation or loss or anything else of the kind. For in the first case Prescribed means something like this: he prescribed this for this man as a thing adapted to procure health; and in the second case it means: That which happens to (or, suits) every man is fixed in a manner for him suitably to his destiny. For this is what we mean when we say that things are suitable to us, as the workmen say of squared stones in walls or the pyramids, that they are suitable, when they fit them to one another in some kind of connexion. For there is altogether one fitness, harmony. And as the universe is made up out of all bodies to be such a body as it is, so out of all existing causes necessity (destiny) is made up to be such a cause as it is. And even those who are completely ignorant understand what I mean, for they say, It (necessity, destiny) brought this to such a person.- This then was brought and this was precribed to him. Let us then receive these things, as well as those which Aesculapius prescribes. Many as a matter of course even among his prescriptions are disagreeable, but we accept them in the hope of health. Let the perfecting and accomplishment of the things, which the common nature judges to be good, be judged by thee to be of the same kind as thy health. And so accept everything which happens, even if it seem disagreeable, because it leads to this, to the health of the universe and to the prosperity and felicity of Zeus (the universe). For he would not have brought on any man what he has brought, if it were not useful for the whole. Neither does the nature of anything, whatever it may be, cause anything which is not suitable to that which is directed by it. For two reasons then it is right to be content with that which happens to thee; the one, because it was done for thee and prescribed for thee, and in a manner had reference to thee, originally from the most ancient causes spun with thy destiny; and the other, because even that which comes severally to every man is to the power which administers the universe a cause of felicity and perfection, nay even of its very continuance. For the integrity of the whole is mutilated, if thou cuttest off anything whatever from the conjunction and the continuity either of the parts or of the causes. And thou dost cut off, as far as it is in thy power, when thou art dissatisfied, and in a manner triest to put anything out of the way.

正像我们一定理解这样的话:爱斯库拉普给这个人开药方,让他练骑马或洗冷水浴或赤足走 路,同样我们也一定理解这样的话:宇宙的本性给这个人开药方,让他生病、损折肢体,丧 失或别的这类事情。因为在前一种情况里,开药方的意思是这样的,他为这个人开药方是作 为适于获得健康的东西;在后一种情况里它的意思则是:对每个人发生(或适合于他)的事 情,都是以某种方式为他确定的,是与他的命运相适应的。因为这就是我们所谓事情对我们 合适,正像工匠把石头相互适合地联结起来时,说墙壁上或金字塔里的方块石头合适一样。 因为这整个就是一个适合、和谐。正如宇宙之成为这样的一个物体,乃是由所有个别的物体 构成的,同样,必然性(命运)之成为这样一个原因,乃是由于所有的实在的个别原因造成。 甚至那些完全无知的人也了解我的意思,因为他们说:它(必然性、命令)给这样一个人带 来这样的事情。-那么,就是这件事带给了他,这件事作为药方开给了他。那么,我们就连 同爱斯库拉普的药方接受这些事情吧!在他的开方中当然也有许多并不一致,但由于希望健 康,我们都接受了。各样事情的完满与成就-这种为共同的本性断定是好的东西,你也把它 断定为与你的健康属于同类的吧!要接受每一件发生的事情,既使它看来不一致,因为它导 致宇宙的健康与宙斯(宇宙)的成功和幸福。因为宙斯带给任何人的,如果不是对整体有用, 就不会带给他了。不论是什么东西,它的本性都不会引起任何与它所支配的东西不相合的事 情。因此,你有两个理由应该满足于对你发生的事情,第一,因为它是为你而做的,是给你 开的药方,并且在某种程度上它对你的关联是源于与你的命运交织在一起的那些最古老的原 因;第二,因为即使那个别地降临于每个人的,对于支配宇宙的力量来说也是一种幸福和完 满的原因,甚至于就是它继续存在的原因。如果你从各个部分或各个原因的联结与继续中间 打断任何事情,整体的完整个就破坏了。而当你不满意并且以某种方式企图消灭什么事物时, 你确是力所能及地把它打断了。

Be not disgusted, nor discouraged, nor dissatisfied, if thou dost not succeed in doing everything according to right principles; but when thou bast failed, return back again, and be content if the greater part of what thou doest is consistent with man's nature, and love this to which thou returnest; and do not return to philosophy as if she were a master, but act like those who have sore eyes and apply a bit of sponge and egg, or as another applies a plaster, or drenching with water. For thus thou wilt not fail to obey reason, and thou wilt repose in it. And remember that philosophy requires only the things which thy nature requires; but thou wouldst have something else which is not according to nature.- It may be objected, Why what is more agreeable than this which I am doing?- But is not this the very reason why pleasure deceives us? And consider if magnanimity, freedom, simplicity, equanimity, piety, are not more agreeable. For what is more agreeable than wisdom itself, when thou thinkest of the security and the happy course of all things which depend on the faculty of understanding and knowledge?

如果你根据正确的原则没有做成一切事时,不要厌恶,不要沮丧,也不要不满;而是在你失 败时又再回去从头做起,只要你所做的较大部分事情符合于人的本性,就满足了,热爱你所 回到的家园,但不要回到哲学仿佛她是一个主人,而是行动得仿佛那些眼疼的人用一点海绵 和蛋清,或者像另一个人用一块膏药,或用水浸洗一样。因为这样你将不在遵守理性方面失 败,你将在它那里得到安宁。记住,哲学仅要求你的本性所要求的事情,而你却有那不符合 本性的别的什么东西。-你可能反对说,为什么那件事比你正做的这件事更使人愉悦呢?- 但这不正是因为快乐在欺骗我们吗?再考虑是否慷慨、自由、朴素、镇静、虔诚不更令人愉 悦。当你想到那依赖于理解和认识能力的一切事物的有保障和幸福的过程,有什么比智慧本身更令人愉悦呢?

Things are in such a kind of envelopment that they have seemed to philosophers, not a few nor those common philosophers, altogether unintelligible; nay even to the Stoics themselves they seem difficult to understand. And all our assent is changeable; for where is the man who never changes? Carry thy thoughts then to the objects themselves, and consider how short-lived they are and worthless, and that they may be in the possession of a filthy wretch or a whore or a robber. Then turn to the morals of those who live with thee, and it is hardly possible to endure even the most agreeable of them, to say nothing of a man being hardly able to endure himself. In such darkness then and dirt and in so constant a flux both of substance and of time, and of motion and of things moved, what there is worth being highly prized or even an object of serious pursuit, I cannot imagine. But on the contrary it is a man's duty to comfort himself, and to wait for the natural dissolution and not to be vexed at the delay, but to rest in these principles only: the one, that nothing will happen to me which is not conformable to the nature of the universe; and the other, that it is in my power never to act contrary to my god and daemon: for there is no man who will compel me to this.

事物是在如此一种包围之中,以致在哲学家们(不是少数的也不是那些普通的哲学家)看来 是完全不可解的,甚至对斯多亚派哲学家本身来说也是难于理解的。所有我们的同意都在变 动不居之中,从不改变的人哪儿有呢?那么把你的思想带到对象本身,考虑它们的存在是多 么短促而无价值吧,它们可能是为一个卑鄙的可怜虫,或一个娼妓、一个强盗所占有。然后 再想想那些和你生活在一起的人们的道德水平,即使容忍他们中最令人愉悦的人也是几乎不 可能的,更不必说容忍一个几乎不能容忍自己的人了。那么在如此的黑暗和肮脏中,在如此 不断流动的实体和时间、运动和被推动的物体的急流中,有什么值得高度赞扬甚或值得认真 追求的对象呢?我想像不出有这样的对象。反之,顺应自身,等待自然的分解,为为延缓而 烦恼,却是一个人的义务,但仅仅使你在这些中得到安宁吧:一是对我发生的一切事情都是 符合宇宙的本性的;二是决不违反我身外和身内的神而行动是在我的力量范围之内,因为没 有人将迫使我违反。

About what am I now employing my own soul? On every occasion I must ask myself this question, and inquire, what have I now in this part of me which they call the ruling principle? And whose soul have I now? That of a child, or of a young man, or of a feeble woman, or of a tyrant, or of a domestic animal, or of a wild beast?

我现在要把我自己的灵魂用于什么事情上呢?在任何场合我都必须问自己这个问题,我在我 的这一被称为支配原则的部分中拥有什么呢?我现在拥有谁的灵魂呢?是一个孩子的灵 魂?抑或一个年青人、一个软弱的妇人、一个暴君、一个家畜、一个野兽的灵魂?

What kind of things those are which appear good to the many, we may learn even from this. For if any man should conceive certain things as being really good, such as prudence, temperance, justice, fortitude, he would not after having first conceived these endure to listen to anything which should not be in harmony with what is really good. But if a man has first conceived as good the things which appear to the many to be good, he will listen and readily receive as very applicable that which was said by the comic writer. Thus even the many perceive the difference. For were it not so, this saying would not offend and would not be rejected in the first case, while we receive it when it is said of wealth, and of the means which further luxury and fame, as said fitly and wittily. Go on then and ask if we should value and think those things to be good, to which after their first conception in the mind the words of the comic writer might be aptly applied- that he who has them, through pure abundance has not a place to ease himself in.

我们甚至可以从这个问题学习-即那些在许多人看来是好的事物是一种什么样的事物呢? 因为,如果有人把诸如明智、节制、正义、坚定这样一些事情视做真正好的,他在首先抱有 这种认识之后就将不耐烦听任何与真正好的东西相抵牾的事情。但如果一个人首先把那多数 人认为好的东西理解为好的,那么他就可能把喜剧作家所说的东西作为真正适合的东西来倾 听并欣然接受。这样,甚至多数人也觉出这差别。因为如果不是这样,当我们听到有关财富、 有关促进奢侈和名声的手段的巧妙和机智的说法时,就不会觉得刺耳也不会从一开始就加以 拒绝了。那么,接着问问我们自己,你是否重视这些事物,是否认为它们是好的?是否在心 里抱有对它们的既定看法之后喜剧作家的话还可以恰当地应用于它们-那占有它们的人,由 于纯粹的富足却没有办法使自己得到安宁。

I am composed of the formal and the material; and neither of them will perish into non-existence, as neither of them came into existence out of non-existence. Every part of me then will be reduced by change into some part of the universe, and that again will change into another part of the universe, and so on for ever. And by consequence of such a change I too exist, and those who begot me, and so on for ever in the other direction. For nothing hinders us from saying so, even if the universe is administered according to definite periods of revolution.

我是由形式和质料组成的,它们都不会消逝为非存在,正像它们都不可能由非存在变为存在 一样。那么我的每一部分就都将被变化带回到宇宙的某一部分,并将再变为宇宙的另一部分, 如此永远生生不息。我也是通过这样一种变化的结果而存在,那些生我的人也是,如此可以 按另一方向永远追溯下去。因为没有什么使我不这样说,即使宇宙是根据无数变革的时代所 管理的。 Reason and the reasoning art (philosophy) are powers which are sufficient for themselves and for their own works. They move then from a first principle which is their own, and they make their way to the end which is proposed to them; and this is the reason why such acts are named catorthoseis or right acts, which word signifies that they proceed by the right road. 理智和推理艺术(哲学)对于它们自身和自身的工作是一种自足的力量。它们是从一个属于 它们自己的第一原则起动的,它们开辟它们的道路直到那规定给它们的终点;这就是为什么 这种活动被称为正确活动的原因,这个词表示它们是沿着正确的道路行进的。

None of these things ought to be called a man's, which do not belong to a man, as man. They are not required of a man, nor does man's nature promise them, nor are they the means of man's nature attaining its end. Neither then does the end of man lie in these things, nor yet that which aids to the accomplishment of this end, and that which aids towards this end is that which is good. Besides, if any of these things did belong to man, it would not be right for a man to despise them and to set himself against them; nor would a man be worthy of praise who showed that he did not want these things, nor would he who stinted himself in any of them be good, if indeed these things were good. But now the more of these things a man deprives himself of, or of other things like them, or even when he is deprived of any of them, the more patiently he endures the loss, just in the same degree -39- he is a better man.

这些事物决不应当被称为是一个人的东西,它们不属于一个作为人的人。它们不需要人,人 的本性也不允诺产生它们,它们也不是人的本性达到其目的的手段。因而人的目的并不在这 些事物之中,那有助于达到这一目的的东西也不在这些事物之中,帮助对准这一目的的东西 就是那好的东西。此外,如果这些事情中有什么确属于人,一个人轻视和反对它们就是不对 的,那表现出他不想要这些事情的人也就不值得赞扬,如果这些事物的确是好的,那么不介 入它们的人也就不是好的。但是现在,一个人使自己丧失这些事物或类似事物愈多,甚至他 被剥夺这些事物,他倒愈能耐心地忍受这损失,并在同样的程度上是一个更好的人。

Such as are thy habitual thoughts, such also will be the character of thy mind; for the soul is dyed by the thoughts. Dye it then with a continuous series of such thoughts as these: for instance, that where a man can live, there he can also live well. But he must live in a palace;- well then, he can also live well in a palace. And again, consider that for whatever purpose each thing has been constituted, for this it has been constituted, and towards this it is carried; and its end is in that towards which it is carried; and where the end is, there also is the advantage and the good of each thing. Now the good for the reasonable animal is society; for that we are made for society has been shown above. Is it not plain that the inferior exist for the sake of the superior? But the things which have life are superior to those which have not life, and of those which have life the superior are those which have reason.

你惯常的思想要像这样,你心灵的品格也要是这样,因为灵魂是由思想来染色的。那么用一 系列这样的思想染你的灵魂:例如,在一个人能够生存的地方,他也能在那里生活得很好。 他必须住在一个宫殿里吗,那好,他在一个宫殿中也能生活得很好。再考虑每一事物无论是 为了什么目的构成的,它的构成都是为着这一目的的,它都被带往这一目的;它的目的是朝 着它被带住的方向的,在那目的所在的地方,也存在着每一事物的利益和善:那么理性动物 的善就在于社会,因为我们是为社会而造的,这已在前面说明过了。低等的东西是为高等的 东西存在的,这不是很明白吗?而有生命的存在都是优越于无生命的存在的,而在有生命的 存在里最优越的又是那有理性的存在。

To seek what is impossible is madness: and it is impossible that the bad should not do something of this kind.

寻求不可能的事情是一种发疯,而恶人不做这种事情是不可能的。

Nothing happens to any man which he is not formed by nature to bear. The same things happen to another, and either because he does not see that they have happened or because he would show a great spirit he is firm and remains unharmed. It is a shame then that ignorance and conceit should be stronger than wisdom.

没有什么一个人天性不可忍受的事情对那个人发生。同样的事情发生于另一个人,或是因为 他没看到它们的发生,或是因为他表现一种伟大的精神而使他保持坚定和不受伤害。那么无 知和欺瞒竟然压倒智慧就是一种羞愧。

Things themselves touch not the soul, not in the least degree; nor have they admission to the soul, nor can they turn or move the soul: but the soul turns and moves itself alone, and whatever judgements it may think proper to make, such it makes for itself the things which present themselves to it.

事物本身不接触灵魂,甚至在最低程度上也不;它们也没有容纳灵魂之处,不能扭转或推动 灵魂,灵魂仅仅转向和推动自身,做出一切它认为适合的判断,这些判断是它为自己做出的 对呈现于它的事物的判断。

In one respect man is the nearest thing to me, so far as I must do good to men and endure them. But so far as some men make themselves obstacles to my proper acts, man becomes to me one of the things which are indifferent, no less than the sun or wind or a wild beast. Now it is true that these may impede my action, but they are no impediments to my affects and disposition, which have the power of acting conditionally and changing: for the mind converts and changes every hindrance to its activity into an aid; and so that which is a hindrance is made a furtherance to an act; and that which is an obstacle on the road helps us on this road.

就我必须对人们行善和忍受他们而言,在这方面人是最接近我的存在。但就一些人对我的恰 当行为形成障碍时,人对我就变成了那些中性的事物之一,不亚于太阳、风或一头兽。确实, 这些人可能阻碍我的行动,但他们并不阻碍我的感情和气质,而这些感情和气质具有限定和 改变行为的力量。由于心灵把每一障碍扭转为对它活动的一个援助,以致那是一个障碍的东 西变成对一个行为的推进,那是一道路上屏障的东西却帮助我们在这条路上行进。

Reverence that which is best in the universe; and this is that which makes use of all things and directs all things. And in like manner also reverence that which is best in thyself; and this is of the same kind as that. For in thyself also, that which makes use of everything else, is this, and thy life is directed by this.

尊重那宇宙中最好的东西,这就是利用和指引所有事物的东西。同样,也要尊重你自身中最 好的东西,它具有跟上面所说的同样的性质。因为那利用别的一切事物的东西也在你自身中, 你的生活受它指导。

That which does no harm to the state, does no harm to the citizen. In the case of every appearance of harm apply this rule: if the state is not harmed by this, neither am I harmed. But if the state is harmed, thou must not be angry with him who does harm to the state. Show him where his error is.

那不损害国家的事情,也不会损害公民。对所有看来是损害的现象都来应用这一规则:如果 国家不受其损害,那我也没有受到损害。但如果国家被损害,你不要对损害国家的人愤怒, 而是向他展示他的错误。

Often think of the rapidity with which things pass by and disappear, both the things which are and the things which are produced. For substance is like a river in a continual flow, and the activities of things are in constant change, and the causes work in infinite varieties; and there is hardly anything which stands still. And consider this which is near to thee, this boundless abyss of the past and of the future in which all things disappear. How then is he not a fool who is puffed up with such things or plagued about them and makes himself miserable? for they vex him only for a time, and a short time.

经常想想那存在的事物和被产生的事物变化和消失得多么迅速。因为实体就像一条湍急地流 动的河,事物的活动处在不断的变化之中,各种原因也在无限的变化之中起作用,几乎没有 什么是保持静止的。考虑那接近于你的东西,那所有事物都消失于其中的过去和未来的无尽 深渊。那么,那自得于这些事物或为它们发愁、把自己弄得很悲惨的人不是很傻吗?因为这 些事物仅仅烦扰他一段时间,一段短暂的时间。

Think of the universal substance, of which thou hast a very small portion; and of universal time, of which a short and indivisible interval has been assigned to thee; and of that which is fixed by destiny, and how small a part of it thou art.

想想普遍的实体,你只占有它很少的一部分;想想普遍的时间,你只分到它一个短暂和不可 分的间隔;想想那被命运所确定的东西,你是它多么小的一部分。

Does another do me wrong? Let him look to it. He has his own disposition, his own activity. I now have what the universal nature wills me to have; and I do what my nature now wills me to do.

别人对你做了错事吗?让他去注意它吧。他有他自己的气质,他自己的活动。我现在有普遍 的本性要我有的,我做我的本性现在要我做的。

Let the part of thy soul which leads and governs be undisturbed by the movements in the flesh, whether of pleasure or of pain; and let it not unite with them, but let it circumscribe itself and limit those affects to their parts. But when these affects rise up to the mind by virtue of that other sympathy that naturally exists in a body which is all one, then thou must not strive to resist the sensation, for it is natural: but let not the ruling part of itself add to the sensation the opinion that it is either good or bad.

让你的灵魂中那一指导和支配的部分不受肉体活动的扰乱吧,无论那是快乐还是痛苦;让它 不要与它们统一起来,而是让它自己限定自己,让那些感受局限于它们自身而不影响灵魂。 而当这些感情通过那自然地存在于作为一个整体的身体之中的别的同情而出现于心灵之中 时,那么你决不要拼命抵制这感觉,因为它是自然的,而是不要让自身的支配部分对这一感 觉加上认为它是好的或坏的意见。 Live with the gods. And he does live with the gods who constantly shows to them, his own soul is satisfied with that which is assigned to him, and that it does all that the daemon wishes, which Zeus hath given to every man for his guardian and guide, a portion of himself. And this is every man's understanding and reason. 和神灵生活在一起。那不断地向神灵表明他自己的灵魂满足于分派给他的东西的人,表明他 的灵魂做内心的神(那么是宙斯作为他的保护和指导而赋予每个人的他自身的一份)希望它 做的一切事情的人,是和神灵生活在一起的。这就是每个人的理解力和理性。

Art thou angry with him whose armpits stink? Art thou angry with him whose mouth smells foul? What good will this danger do thee? He has such a mouth, he has such arm-pits: it is necessary that such an emanation must come from such things- but the man has reason, it will be said, and he is able, if he takes pain, to discover wherein he offends- I wish thee well of thy discovery. Well then, and thou hast reason: by thy rational faculty stir up his rational faculty; show him his error, admonish him. For if he listens, thou wilt cure him, and there is no need of anger. Neither tragic actor nor whore...

你对患有狐臭的人生气吗?你对患有口臭的人生气吗?你怎样善待这一麻烦呢?他有这样 一张口,他有这样一个腋窝,这种气味来自这些东西是很自然的。-但据说他有理性,如果 他用心想一下,他能发现他为什么冒犯了别人。-我希望你满意你的发现,那么好,你也有 理性,用你的理性能力来刺激他的理性能力,向他指明他的错处,劝诫他吧。因为如果他肯 听,你将医治他,但没有必要生气。你非悲剧演员亦非妓女……  

As thou intendest to live when thou art gone out,...so it is in thy power to live here. But if men do not permit thee, then get away out of life, yet so as if thou wert suffering no harm. The house is smoky, and I quit it. Why dost thou think that this is any trouble? But so long as nothing of the kind drives me out, I remain, am free, and no man shall hinder me from doing what I choose; and I choose to do what is according to the nature of the rational and social animal.

正像你离去时你不想死……所以在此生活是在你的力量范围之内。但如果人们不允许你,那 么就放弃生命吧,并仍表现得仿佛你没有受到任何伤害。这屋子是烟雾弥漫的,我就离开它。 但你为什么认为这是什么苦恼呢?只要没有什么这种东西迫使我出去,我就留下,自由自在, 无人阻止我做我所欲的事,我愿意做那符合理性和社会动物本性的事情。

The intelligence of the universe is social. Accordingly it has made the inferior things for the sake of the superior, and it has fitted the superior to one another. Thou seest how it has subordinated, co-ordinated and assigned to everything its proper portion, and has brought together into concord with one another the things which are the best.

宇宙的理智是社会性的。所以它为高等的事物创造出低等的事物,并使它们与高等的事物相 互适应。你看到它怎样使高下有序,相互合作,分配给每一事物以它适当的份额,把它们结 合到一起使之与那最好的事物相和谐。

How hast thou behaved hitherto to the gods, thy parents, brethren, children, teachers, to those who looked after thy infancy, to thy friends, kinsfolk, to thy slaves? Consider if thou hast hitherto behaved to all in such a way that this may be said of thee:

你从此将如何表现于神灵、你的父母、兄弟、孩子、教师、那些从小照顾你的人、你的朋友、 同胞以及你的奴隶呢?要考虑是否你从此要以这样一种方式表现于所有人,使人可以这样说 你:

Never has wronged a man in deed or word. And call to recollection both how many things thou hast passed through, and how many things thou hast been able to endure: and that the history of thy life is now complete and thy service is ended: and how many beautiful things thou hast seen: and how many pleasures and pains thou hast despised; and how many things called honourable thou hast spurned; and to how many ill-minded folks thou hast shown a kind disposition.

一个在行为或语言中不犯错误的人。你要回忆一下你经历过多少事情,你一直能忍受多少困 苦,你的生命史现在告终,你的服务现在终止;你又见过多少美丽的事物,你蔑视过多少快 乐和痛苦,你拒斥了多少所谓光荣的事情,你对多少心肠不好的庸人表示过和善。

Why do unskilled and ignorant souls disturb him who has skill and knowledge? What soul then has skill and knowledge? That which knows beginning and end, and knows the reason which pervades all substance and through all time by fixed periods (revolutions) administers the universe.

无能和无知的灵魂怎么会打扰有能力和有知识的人呢?那么什么灵魂有能力和有知识呢? 那知道开端和结尾的,知道那隐涵在整个实体和在全部时间中以确定的时代(变革)管理着 宇宙的理性的灵魂。

Soon, very soon, thou wilt be ashes, or a skeleton, and either a name or not even a name; but name is sound and echo. And the things which are much valued in life are empty and rotten and trifling,and like little dogs biting one another, and little children quarrelling, laughing, and then straightway weeping. But fidelity and modesty and justice and truth are fled

很快,你就将化为灰尘,或者一具骷髅,一个名称,甚至连名称也没有,而名称只是声音和 回声。那在生活中被高度重视的东西是空洞的、易朽和琐屑的,像小狗一样互相撕咬,小孩 子们争吵着、笑着,然后又马上哭泣。但忠诚、节制、正义和真理却:

Up to Olympus from the wide-spread earth. What then is there which still detains thee here? If the objects of sense are easily changed and never stand still, and the organs of perception are dull and easily receive false impressions; and the poor soul itself is an exhalation from blood. But to have good repute amidst such a world as this is an empty thing. Why then dost thou not wait in tranquility for thy end, whether it is extinction or removal to another state? And until that time comes, what is sufficient? Why, what else than to venerate the gods and bless them, and to do good to men, and to practise tolerance and self-restraint; but as to everything which is beyond the limits of the poor flesh and breath, to remember that this is neither thine nor in thy power.

从宽广的大地飞向奥林匹斯山。如果感觉的对象是容易变化的,从不保持静止;知觉器官是 迟钝的,容易得到错误的印象;可怜的灵魂本身是从血液的一种嘘气,那么还有什么使你滞 留在此呢?是为了在这样一个空洞的世界里有一个好名声。那么你为什么不安静地等着你的 结局,不论它是死亡还是迁徙到另一国家呢?直到那一时刻来临,怎样才是足够的呢?难道 不就是崇敬和赞美神灵,对人们行善,实行忍耐和节制;至于那么在可怜的肉体和呼吸之外 的一切事物,要记住它们既不是属于你的也不是你力所能及的。

Thou canst pass thy life in an equable flow of happiness, if thou canst go by the right way, and think and act in the right way. These two things are common both to the soul of God and to the soul of man, and to the soul of every rational being, not to be hindered by another; and to hold good to consist in the disposition to justice and the practice of it, and in this to let thy desire find its termination.

如果你能走正确的道路,正确地思考和行动,你就能在一种幸福的平静流动中度过一生。这 两件事对于神的灵魂和人的灵魂,对于理性存在的灵魂都是共同的,不要受别的事情打扰。 好好地坚持正义的气质并实行正义,这样你就能消除你的欲望。

If this is neither my own badness, nor an effect of my own badness, and the common weal is not injured, why am I troubled about it? And what is the harm to the common weal?

如果这不是我自己的恶,也不是我自己的恶引起的结果,公共福利也不受到损害,为什么我 要为它苦恼呢?什么是对公共福利的损害呢?

Do not be carried along inconsiderately by the appearance of things, but give help to all according to thy ability and their fitness; and if they should have sustained loss in matters which are indifferent, do not imagine this to be a damage. For it is a bad habit. But as the old man, when he went away, asked back his foster-child's top, remembering that it was a top, so do thou in this case also.

不要不加考虑地被事物的现象牵着鼻子走,而是根据你的能力和是否对他们合适而给所有人 以帮助;如果他们蒙受无关紧要的物质上的损失,不要把这想像为是一种损害。因为这是一 种坏的习惯。但当这个老人,当他离去时,回顾他抚育的孩子的巅峰时期,记住这是巅峰时期,你在这种场合里也要这样做。

When thou art calling out on the Rostra, hast thou forgotten, man, what these things are?- Yes; but they are objects of great concern to these people- wilt thou too then be made a fool for these things?- I was once a fortunate man, but I lost it, I know not how.- But fortunate means that a man has assigned to himself a good fortune: and a good fortune is good disposition of the soul, good emotions, good actions.

当你在讲坛上呼唤时,人啊,你忘记了这些事物是什么吗?-是的,但它们是这些人强烈关 心的对象-那么你自己也要这样愚蠢地对待这些事物吗?-我曾经是一个幸运的人,但我失 去了它,我不知道怎么办。-但幸运只意味着一个人给自己分派了一种好的运气:一种好运 气就是灵魂、好的情感、好的行为的一种好的配置。