中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 6

时间 : 2013-10-10 07:45来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
下载音频

Book Six THE substance of the universe is obedient and compliant; and the reason which governs it has in itself no cause for doing evil, for it has no malice, nor does it do evil to anything, nor is anything harmed by it. But all things are made and perfected according to this reason.

宇宙的实体是忠顺和服从的,那支配着它的理性自身没有任何原因行恶,因为它毫无恶意, 它也不对任何事物行恶,不损害任何事物。而所有的事物都是根据这一理性而创造而完善的。

Let it make no difference to thee whether thou art cold or warm, if thou art doing thy duty; and whether thou art drowsy or satisfied with sleep; and whether ill-spoken of or praised; and whether dying or doing something else. For it is one of the acts of life, this act by which we die: it is sufficient then in this act also to do well what we have in hand.

如果你在履行你的职责,那么不管你是冻馁还是饱暖、嗜睡还是振作,被人指责还是被人赞 扬,垂死还是做别的什么事情,让它们对你都毫无差别。因为这是生活中的活动之一,我们 赴死要经过这一活动,那么在这一活动中做好我们手头要做的事就足够了。

Look within. Let neither the peculiar quality of anything nor its value escape thee.

返观自身,不要让任何特殊性质及其价值从你逃脱。

All existing things soon change, and they will either be reduced to vapour, if indeed all substance is one, or they will be dispersed.

所有存在的事物都很快要改变,它们或者要回归于气体,如果整个实体的确是一的话;或者 它们将被分解。

The reason which governs knows what its own disposition is, and what it does, and on what material it works.

那支配的理性知道它自己是怎样配置的、它做什么和用什么原料工作。

The best way of avenging thyself is not to become like the wrong doer. 亲自报复的最好方式就是不要变成一个像作恶者一样的人。 Take pleasure in one thing and rest in it, in passing from one social act to another social act,thinking of God.

在从一个社会活动到另一个社会活动的过程中,只在一件事情中得到快乐和安宁-即想着 神。

The ruling principle is that which rouses and turns itself, and while it makes itself such as it is and such as it wills to be, it also makes everything which happens appear to itself to be such as it wills.

支配的原则是产生和转变自身的原则,当它使自己成为它现在的样子和它将愿是的样子时, 它也使发生的一切在它看来都如其所愿。

In conformity to the nature of the universe every single thing is accomplished, for certainly it is not in conformity to any other nature that each thing is accomplished, either a nature which externally comprehends this, or a nature which is comprehended within this nature, or a nature external and independent of this.

每一单个的事物都是按照宇宙的普遍本性来完成的,因为,每一事物的确不是按照任何别的 本性-即不是按照一个从外面领悟它的本性,或一个在这本性之内领悟它的本性,或一个外 在和独立它的本性-来完成的。

The universe is either a confusion, and a mutual involution of things, and a dispersion; or it is unity and order and providence. If then it is the former, why do I desire to tarry in a fortuitous combination of things and such a disorder? And why do I care about anything else than how I shall at last become earth? And why am I disturbed, for the dispersion of my elements will happen whatever I do. But if the other supposition is true, I venerate, and I am firm, and I trust in him who governs.

宇宙要末是一种混乱,一种诸多事物的相互缠结和分散;要末是统一、秩序和神意。如果前 者是真,为什么我愿意留在一种各事物的偶然结合和这样一种无秩序中呢?为什么我除了关 心我最终将怎样化为泥土之外还关心别的事情呢?为什么我要因为不管我做什么我的元素 最终都是要分解的而烦扰自己呢?而如果后者是真,我便崇拜、坚定地信任那主宰者。

When thou hast been compelled by circumstances to be disturbed in a manner, quickly return to thyself and do not continue out of tune longer than the compulsion lasts; for thou wilt have more mastery over the harmony by continually recurring to it.

当你在某种程度上因环境所迫而烦恼时,迅速地转向你自己,一旦压力消失就不要再继续不 安,因为你将通过不断地再回到自身而达到较大的和谐。

If thou hadst a step-mother and a mother at the same time, thou wouldst be dutiful to thy step-mother, but still thou wouldst constantly return to thy mother. Let the court and philosophy now be to thee step-mother and mother: return to philosophy frequently and repose in her, through whom what thou meetest with in the court appears to thee tolerable, and thou appearest tolerable in the court.

如果你同是有一后母和亲母,你要对后母尽责,但你还是要不断地回到你的亲母。现在就让 宫廷和哲学是你的后母和亲母,经常地回到哲学吧,在它那里得到安宁,通过它你在宫廷中 遇到的事情,对你看来就是可忍受的了,你会在宫廷中表现出忍耐。

When we have meat before us and such eatables we receive the impression, that this is the dead body of a fish, and this is the dead body of a bird or of a pig; and again, that this Falernian is only a little grape juice, and this purple robe some sheep's wool dyed with the blood of a shell-fish: such then are these impressions, and they reach the things themselves and penetrate them, and so we see what kind of things they are. Just in the same way ought we to act all through life, and where there are things which appear most worthy of our approbation, we ought to lay them bare and look at their worthlessness and strip them of all the words by which they are exalted. For outward show is a wonderful perverter of the reason, and when thou art most sure that thou art employed about things worth thy pains, it is then that it cheats thee most. Consider then what Crates says of Xenocrates himself.

当我们面前摆着肉类这样的食物,我们得到这样一些印象:这是一条鱼死去的身体,这是一 只鸟和一头猪死去的身体,以及,这种饮料只是一点葡萄汁,这件紫红袍是一些以贝的血染 红的羊毛,这些印象就是如此,它们达到了事物本身,贯穿其底蕴,所以我们看到了它们是 什么。我们在生活中恰恰应以同样的方式做一切事,对于那些看来最值得我们嘉许的事物, 我们应当使它们赤裸,注意它们的无价值,剥去所有提高它们的言词外衣。因为外表是理智 的一个奇妙的曲解者,当你最相信你是在从事值得你努力的事情时,也就是它最欺骗你的时 候。可以再考虑一下克拉蒂斯本人对色诺克拉蒂斯所说的。

Most of the things which the multitude admire are referred to objects of the most general kind, those which are held together by cohesion or natural organization, such as stones, wood, fig-trees, vines, olives. But those which are admired by men who are a little more reasonable are referred to the things which are held together by a living principle, as flocks, herds. Those which are admired by men who are still more instructed are the things which are held together by a rational soul, not however a universal soul, but rational so far as it is a soul skilled in some art, or expert in some other way, or simply rational so far as it possesses a number of slaves. But he who values rational soul, a soul universal and fitted for political life, regards nothing else except this; and above all things he keeps his soul in a condition and in an activity conformable to reason and social life, and he co-operates to this end with those who are of the same kind as himself.

群众赞颂的许多事物都属于最一般的物体,是一些通过凝聚力或自然组织结为一体的东西, 例如石料、木料、无花果树、葡萄树和橄榄树。而那些具有较多理性人们赞扬的事物则可归 之于被一个生命原则结为一体的东西,如羊群、兽群。那些更有教养的人们赞扬的事物则是 被一个理性的灵魂结为一体的事物,但这还不是一个普遍的灵魂,而只是在经过某种技艺训 练或以别的方式训练过的范围内是理性的,或者仅仅是就它拥有一些奴隶而言是理性的。而 那高度尊重一个理性灵魂,一个普遍的适合于政治生活的灵魂的人却除了下面的事以外不看 重任何事情:他超越于所有事物之上,他的灵魂保持在符合理性和社会生活的一种状态和活 动之中,他和那些像他一样的人合作达到这一目的。

Some things are hurrying into existence, and others are hurrying out of it; and of that which is coming into existence part is already extinguished. Motions and changes are continually renewing the world, just as the uninterrupted course of time is always renewing the infinite duration of ages. In this flowing stream then, on which there is no abiding, what is there of the things which hurry by on which a man would set a high price? It would be just as if a man should fall in love with one of the sparrows which fly by, but it has already passed out of sight. Something of this kind is the very life of every man, like the exhalation of the blood and the respiration of the air. For such as it is to have once drawn in the air and to have given it back, which we do every moment, just the -47- same is it with the whole respiratory power, which thou didst receive at thy birth yesterday and the day before, to give it back to the element from which thou didst first draw it.

一些事物迅速地进入存在,而另一些事物则飞快地离开存在,而在那进入存在的事物内部也 有一部分已经死灭。运动和变化不断地更新这世界,正像不间断的时间过程总是更新着限持 续的时代。那么在这一变动不居的急流中,对那飞逝而过的事物,有什么是人可以给予高度 评价的东西呢?这正像一个人竟然爱上那飞过的一只鸟雀,却马上就看不见它了一样,每一 个人的生命正是这种情况,比方说蒸发血液和呼吸空气。因为事情就是如此,正像我们每时 每刻做的那样,我们的呼吸能力一旦吸入空气,又马上把它呼出,你在出生时所得到的一切, 也要重新变成那原先的元素。

Neither is transpiration, as in plants, a thing to be valued, nor respiration, as in domesticated animals and wild beasts, nor the receiving of impressions by the appearances of things, nor being moved by desires as puppets by strings, nor assembling in herds, nor being nourished by food; for this is just like the act of separating and parting with the useless part of our food. What then is worth being valued? To be received with clapping of hands? No. Neither must we value the clapping of tongues, for the praise which comes from the many is a clapping of tongues. Suppose then that thou hast given up this worthless thing called fame, what remains that is worth valuing? This in my opinion, to move thyself and to restrain thyself in conformity to thy proper constitution, to which end both all employments and arts lead. For every art aims at this, that the thing which has been made should be adapted to the work for which it has been made; and both the vine-planter who looks after the vine, and the horse-breaker, and he who trains the dog, seek this end. But the education and the teaching of youth aim at something. In this then is the value of the education and the teaching. And if this is well, thou wilt not seek anything else. Wilt thou not cease to value many other things too? Then thou wilt be neither free, nor sufficient for thy own happiness, nor without passion. For of necessity thou must be envious, jealous, and suspicious of those who can take away those things, and plot against those who have that which is valued by thee. Of necessity a man must be altogether in a state of perturbation who wants any of these things; and besides, he must often find fault with the gods. But to reverence and honour thy own mind will make thee content with thyself, and in harmony with society, and in agreement with the gods, that is, praising all that they give and have ordered.

植物的叶面蒸发不是一件值得尊重的事情,家畜和野兽的呼吸也不是,通过事物现象得到, 像木偶一样被欲望推动,聚集兽群,从食物得到营养,都不是一件值得尊重的事情,因为这 正像切割和分离我们食物的无用部分一样。那么什么是值得尊重的呢?是众口称赞的那些事 情吗?不,我们决不能尊重那口舌的称赞,而这来自多数人的赞扬就是一种口舌的称赞。那 么假设你放弃了这种无价值的所谓名声,还有什么东西值得尊重呢?我的意见是,按照你恰 当的结构推动你自己,限制你自己于那所有的职业和技艺都指向的目标。国为每一技艺都指 向它,被创造的事物应当使自己适应于它因此而被造的工作;葡萄种植者、驯马师、驯狗者 都追求这一目的。而对年青人的教育和训练也有此目的,因而教育和训练的价值也就在这里。 如果这目的是好的,你将不追求任何别的东西。你还要重视许多别的东西吗?那么你将不会 自由,对于你自己的幸福不会知足,不会摆脱激情。因为这样你必然会是嫉妒的、吝惜的、 猜疑那些能夺走这些东西的人,策划反对那些拥有你所重视的这些东西的人。想要这样一些 东西的人必定会完全处在一种烦恼不安的状态,此外,他一定会常常抱怨神灵。而尊重和赞 颂你自己的灵心将使你满足于自身,与社会保持和谐,与神灵保持一致,亦即,赞颂所有他 们给予和命令的东西。

Above, below, all around are the movements of the elements. But the motion of virtue is in none of these: it is something more divine, and advancing by a way hardly observed it goes happily on its road.

上上下下、前后左右都是元素的运动。而德性的运动却不如此:它是一种更神圣的东西,被 一种几乎不可见的东西推动,在它自己的道路上愉快地行进。

How strangely men act. They will not praise those who are living at the same time and living with themselves; but to be themselves praised by posterity, by those whom they have never seen or ever will see, this they set much value on. But this is very much the same as if thou shouldst be grieved because those who have lived before thee did not praise thee.

人们的行为是多么奇怪啊:他们不赞扬那些与自己同时代,与自己一起生活的人,而又把使 自己被后代赞扬,被那些他们从未见过或永不会见到的人的赞扬看得很重。而这就像你竟然 因为生活在你前面的人没有赞扬你而感到悲哀一样可笑之至。

If a thing is difficult to be accomplished by thyself, do not think that it is impossible for man: but if anything is possible for man and conformable to his nature, think that this can be attained by thyself too.

如果有一件事是你难于完成的,不要认为它对于人也是不可能的,但如果什么事对于人是可 能的,是合乎他的本性的,那么想来这也是你能达到的。

In the gymnastic exercises suppose that a man has torn thee with his nails, and by dashing against thy head has inflicted a wound. Well, we neither show any signs of vexation, nor are we offended, nor do we suspect him afterwards as a treacherous fellow; and yet we are on our guard against him, not however as an enemy, nor yet with suspicion, but we quietly get out of his way. Something like this let thy behaviour be in all the other parts of life; let us overlook many things in those who are like antagonists in the gymnasium. For it is in our power, as I said, to get out of the way, and to have no suspicion nor hatred.

假设在体育竟技中一个人的指甲抠伤了你的皮肤,或者在冲撞到你的头时使你受了伤,那好, 我们不会有什么神经质的表现,不会以为他要杀我们,我们也不会随后怀疑他是一个背信弃 义的伙伴;我们虽然还是防范他范他,但无论如何不是作为一个敌人,也不带猜疑,而是平 静地让开。你在你生活的所有别的方面也这样做吧,让我们不要对那些好比是体育场上的对 手一样的人们多心吧。因为,正如我所说的,不抱任何猜疑或仇恨地让开路在我的力量范围 之内。

If any man is able to convince me and show me that I do not think or act right, I will gladly change; for I seek the truth by which no man was ever injured. But he is injured who abides in his error and ignorance.

如果有人能够使我相信向我展示我没有正确地思考和行动,我将愉快地改变自己;因为我寻 求真理,而任何人都不会受到真理的伤害。而那保留错误和无知的人却要因此受到伤害。

I do my duty: other things trouble me not; for they are either things without life, or things without reason, or things that have rambled and know not the way.

我履地我的义务,其他的事物不会使我苦恼,因为它们或者是没有生命的物体,或者是没有理性的事物,或者是误入歧途或不明道路的存在。

As to the animals which have no reason and generally all things and objects, do thou, since thou hast reason and they have none, make use of them with a generous and liberal spirit. But towards human beings, as they have reason, behave in a social spirit. And on all occasions call on the gods, and do not perplex thyself about the length of time in which thou shalt do this; for even three hours so spent are sufficient.

对于那没有理性的动物和一般的事物和对象,由于你有理性而它们没有,你要以一种大方和 慷慨的精神对待它们。而对于人来说,由于他们有理性,你要以一种友爱的精神对待他们。 在所有的场合都要祷告神灵,不要困窘于你将花多长时间做这事,因为即使如此化去三小时 也是足够的。

Alexander the Macedonian and his groom by death were brought to the same state; for either they were received among the same seminal principles of the universe, or they were alike dispersed among the atoms.

马其顿的亚历山大和他的马夫被死亡带到了同一个地方,因为他们或者是被收入宇宙的同一 生殖本原,或者同样地消散为原子。

Consider how many things in the same indivisible time take place in each of us, things which concern the body and things which concern the soul: and so thou wilt not wonder if many more things, or rather all things which come into existence in that which is the one and all, which we call Cosmos, exist in it at the same time.

考虑一下在一段不可划分的时间里,有多少关系到身体和灵魂的事情对我们每一个人发生, 那么你就不要奇怪,在同样的时间里,有更多甚至所有的事物都在那既是一又是全的、我们 称之为宇宙的东西中产生和存在。

If any man should propose to thee the question, how the name Antoninus is written, wouldst thou with a straining of the voice utter each letter? What then if they grow angry, wilt thou be angry too? Wilt thou not go on with composure and number every letter? just so then in this life also remember that every duty is made up of certain parts. These it is thy duty to observe and without being disturbed or showing anger towards those who are angry with thee to go on thy way and finish that which is set before thee.

如果有人向你提出这个问题,"安东尼"这个名字是怎样写呢?你将不耐烦地说出每一字母 么?而如果他们变得愤怒,你也对他们愤怒吗?你不镇定地继续一个个说出每一个字母么? 那么在生活中也正是这样,也要记住每一义务都是由某些部分组成的。遵循它们就是你的义 务,不要烦恼和生气地对待那些生你气的人,继续走你的路,完成摆在你前面的工作。

How cruel it is not to allow men to strive after the things which appear to them to be suitable to their nature and profitable! And yet in a manner thou dost not allow them to do this, when thou art vexed because they do wrong. For they are certainly moved towards things because they suppose them to be suitable to their nature and profitable to them.- But it is not so.- Teach them then, and show them without being angry.

不允许人们努力追求那些在他们看来是适合他们本性的和有利的事物,是多么残忍啊!但当 你因他们行恶而烦恼时,还是要以某种方式不允许他们做这些事。他们被推动做这些事确实是因为他们假设这些事是适合于他们本性的,是对他们有利的,然而情况不是这样。那么教 育他们吧,平静地向他们展示他们的错误。

Death is a cessation of the impressions through the senses, and of the pulling of the strings which move the appetites, and of the discursive movements of the thoughts, and of the service to the flesh.

死亡是感官印象的中止、是欲望系列的中断,是思想的散漫运动的停息,是对肉体服务的结 束。

It is a shame for the soul to be first to give way in this life, when thy body does not give way.

这是一个羞愧:当你的身体还没有衰退时,你的灵魂就先在生活中衰退。

Take care that thou art not made into a Caesar, that thou art not dyed with this dye; for such things happen. Keep thyself then simple, good, pure, serious, free from affectation, a friend of justice, a worshipper of the gods, kind, affectionate, strenuous in all proper acts. Strive to continue to be such as philosophy wished to make thee. Reverence the gods, and help men. Short is life. There is only one fruit of this terrene life, a pious disposition and social acts. Do everything as a disciple of Antoninus. Remember his constancy in every act which was conformable to reason, and his evenness in all things, and his piety, and the serenity of his countenance, and his sweetness, and his disregard of empty fame, and his efforts to understand things; and how he would never let anything pass without having first most carefully examined it and clearly understood it; and how he bore with those who blamed him unjustly without blaming them in return; how he did nothing in a hurry; and how he listened not to calumnies, and how exact an examiner of manners and actions he was; and not given to reproach people, nor timid, nor suspicious, nor a sophist; and with how little he was satisfied, such as lodging, bed, dress, food, servants; and how laborious and patient; and how he was able on account of his sparing diet to hold out to the evening, not even requiring to relieve himself by any evacuations except at the usual hour; and his firmness and uniformity in his friendships; and how he tolerated freedom of speech in those who opposed his opinions; and the pleasure that he had when any man showed him anything better; and how religious he was without superstition. Imitate all this that thou mayest have as good a conscience, when thy last hour comes, as he had.

注意你并不是要被造成一个凯撒,你并不是以这种染料染的,以便这样的事情发生。那么使 你自己保持朴素、善良、纯洁、严肃、不做作、爱正义、崇敬神灵、和善、温柔、致力于所 有恰当的行为吧。不断努力地使自己成为一个哲学希望你成为的人。尊重神灵、帮助他人。 生命是短暂的,这一尘世的生命只有一个果实:一个虔诚的精神和友善的行为。做任何事情 都要像安东尼的一个信徒一样。记住他在符合理性的每一行为中的坚定一贯,他在所有事情 上出的胸怀坦荡,他的虔诚,他面容的宁静,他的温柔,他对虚荣的鄙视,他对理解事物的 努力;他如何经手每一件事情都先行仔细的考察并达到清楚的理解;他如何忍受那些不公正 地责备他的人而不反过来责备他们;他从不仓促行事,不信谣言诽谤;他是一个关于方法和 行为的十分精细的考察者,不对愤怒的民众让步,不胆怯,不多疑,不诡辩;在住处、眠床、 衣服、食物和仆人方面,很少一点东西就能使他满足;记住他如何能够靠他节俭的一餐而支 持到夜晚,甚至除了在通常的时刻之外不需要任何休息来放松一下自己,记住他在友谊中的 坚定性和一致性,他如何容忍反对他意见的人的言论自由,当有人向他展示较好的事情时他 获得的快乐,他的不掺任何迷信的宗教气质。要模仿所有这些品行以使你能在你最后的时刻来临时,拥有一颗和他一样好的良心。

Return to thy sober senses and call thyself back; and when thou hast roused thyself from sleep and hast perceived that they were only dreams which troubled thee, now in thy waking hours look at these (the things about thee) as thou didst look at those (the dreams).

回到你清醒的感觉,唤回你自身吧;当你从睡眠中醒来,你明白那苦恼你的只是梦幻,现在 在你清醒的时刻来看待这些(有关你的事)就像你曾那样看待那些(梦)一样。

I consist of a little body and a soul. Now to this little body all things are indifferent, for it is not able to perceive differences. But to the understanding those things only are indifferent, which are not the works of its own activity. But whatever things are the works of its own activity, all these are in its power. And of these however only those which are done with reference to the present; for as to the future and the past activities of the mind, even these are for the present indifferent.

我是由一个小小的身体和一个灵魂构成的。所有的事物对于这小小的身体都是漠不相关的, 因为它不能感觉出差别。但对于理智来说,只是那些不是它自身活动结果的事物才是漠不相 关的。而凡是作为它自身活动结果的事物,都是在它的力量范围之内的。然而,在这些事物 中又只有那些现在所做的事是在其力量范围之内,因为对于心灵将来和过去的活动来说,甚 至这些现在的事情也是漠不相关的。

Neither the labour which the hand does nor that of the foot is contrary to nature, so long as the foot does the foot's work and the hand the hand's. So then neither to a man as a man is his labour contrary to nature, so long as it does the things of a man. But if the labour is not contrary to his nature, neither is it an evil to him.

只要脚做脚的工作,手做手的工作,手脚的劳动绝不违反本性。所以,对于一个人来说,只 要他做的是一个人的工作,他的工作也绝不违反本性。而如果这工作不违反他的本性,它对 这个人来说就决非坏事。 How many pleasures have been enjoyed by robbers, patricides, tyrants. 有多少快乐是被强盗、弑父者和暴君享受的啊。

Dost thou not see how the handicraftsmen accommodate themselves up to a certain point to those who are not skilled in their craft- nevertheless they cling to the reason (the principles) of their art and do not endure to depart from it? Is it not strange if the architect and the physician shall have more respect to the reason (the principles) of their own arts than man to his own reason, which is common to him and the gods?

你没有看到手艺人是如何使自己在某种程度上适应于那不谙他们手艺的人,同时又仍然坚持 着他们的技艺的理性(原则)而并不忍从它离开吗?如果建筑师和医生将比人尊重他自己的 理性(那是他和神灵共同的理性)更尊重他们自己的技艺的理性(原则),那不是令人奇怪 吗?

Asia, Europe are corners of the universe: all the sea a drop in the universe; Athos a little clod of the universe: all the present time is a point in eternity. All things are little, changeable, perishable. All things come from thence, from that universal ruling power either directly proceeding or by way of sequence. And accordingly the lion's gaping jaws, and that which is poisonous, and every -52- harmful thing, as a thorn, as mud, are after-products of the grand and beautiful. Do not then imagine that they are of another kind from that which thou dost venerate, but form a just opinion of the source of all.

亚细亚、欧罗巴是宇宙的一角:所有的海洋是宇宙的一滴。阿陀斯山是宇宙的一小块,所有 现存的时间是永恒中的一点。所有的事物都是微小的、变化的、会腐朽的。所有的事物都从 那儿来,从宇宙的统治力量中直接产生或者作为后继物出现。因此,狮子张开的下颚,有毒 的物质,所有有害的东西,像荆棘、烂泥,都是辉煌和美丽的事物的副产品。那么不要以为 它们是与你尊崇的事物不同的另一种性质的事物,而是对所有事物的源泉形成一个正确的看 法。

He who has seen present things has seen all, both everything which has taken place from all eternity and everything which will be for time without end; for all things are of one kin and of one form.

那看见了现在事物的人也看见了一切,包括从亘古发生的一切事物和将要永无止境延续的一 切事物,因为一切事物都属于同一系统、同一形式

Frequently consider the connexion of all things in the universe and their relation to one another. For in a manner all things are implicated with one another, and all in this way are friendly to one another; for one thing comes in order after another, and this is by virtue of the active movement and mutual conspiration and the unity of the substance.

经常考虑宇宙中所有事物的联系和它们的相互关系。因为所有事物以某种方式都互相牵涉 着,因而所有事物在这种情况下都是亲密的,因为一事物依次在另一事物之后出现,这是由 主动的运动和相互的协作以及实体的统一性造成的。

Adapt thyself to the things with which thy lot has been cast: and the men among whom thou hast received thy portion, love them, but do it truly, sincerely.

要使你自己适应于命运注定要使你同它们在一起的事物,以及你注定要和他们生活在一起的 那些人,要爱他们,真正地,忠实地这样做。

Every instrument, tool, vessel, if it does that for which it has been made, is well, and yet he who made it is not there. But in the things which are held together by nature there is within and there abides in them the power which made them; wherefore the more is it fit to reverence this power, and to think, that, if thou dost live and act according to its will, everything in thee is in conformity to intelligence. And thus also in the universe the things which belong to it are in conformity to intelligence.

每一个器具、工具、器皿,如果它实现了它被制作的目的,那就是好的,可是制作的人并不 在它那里。而在为自然组合的东西里面,制作它们的力量是存在着、停留着;因此,更宜于 尊重这一力量,并且想,如果你真是按照它的意志生活和行动,那么你心中的一切也都是符 合理性的。而宇宙中那些属于它的事物也都是如此合符理性的。

Whatever of the things which are not within thy power thou shalt suppose to be good for thee or evil, it must of necessity be that, if such a bad thing befall thee or the loss of such a good thing, thou wilt blame the gods, and hate men too, those who are the cause of the misfortune or the loss, or those who are suspected of being likely to be the cause; and indeed we do much injustice, because we make a difference between these things. But if we judge only those things which are in our power to be good or bad, there remains no reason either for finding fault with God or standing in a hostile attitude to man.

如果你假设那不在你力量范围之内的事物对你是好的或坏的,那必然是这样:如果这样一件 坏事降临于你或者你丧失了一个好的事物,那你将谴责神灵,也恨那些造成这不幸或损失的 人们,或者恨那些被怀疑是其原因的人们;我们的确做了许多不义的事情,因为我们在这些 事物之间做出好与坏的区别。但如果我们仅仅判断那在我们力量范围之内的事物为好的或坏 的,那就没有理由或者挑剔神灵或者对人抱一种敌意。

We are all working together to one end, some with knowledge and design, and others without knowing what they do; as men also when they are asleep, of whom it is Heraclitus, I think, who says that they are labourers and co-operators in the things which take place in the universe. But men co-operate after different fashions: and even those co-operate abundantly, who find fault with what happens and those who try to oppose it and to hinder it; for the universe had need even of such men as these. It remains then for thee to understand among what kind of workmen thou placest thyself; for he who rules all things will certainly make a right use of thee, and he will receive thee among some part of the co-operators and of those whose labours conduce to one end. But be not thou such a part as the mean and ridiculous verse in the play, which Chrysippus speaks of.

我们都是朝着一个目标而在一起工作的,有些人具有知识和计划,而另一些人却不知道他们 在做什么,就像睡眠的人们一样。我想,那是赫拉克利特说的,他说他们在发生于宇宙的事 物中是劳动者和合作者。但人们是多少勉强地合作的,甚至那些充分合作的人们,他们也会 对那发生的事情和试图反对和阻挠合作的人不满,因为宇宙甚至也需要这样一些人。那么这 件事仍然保留给你,即懂得你把自己放在哪种工作者之中,因为那一切事物的主宰者将肯定 要正确地用你,他将派你作为使用者和那些其劳作倾向于一个目的的人的一个。但你不要使 自己扮演这一角色,正像克内西帕斯所说,扮演一个戏剧中贫乏的可笑的角色。

Does the sun undertake to do the work of the rain, or Aesculapius the work of the Fruit-bearer (the earth)? And how is it with respect to each of the stars, are they not different and yet they work together to the same end?

太阳承担了雨的工作,或者艾斯库累普承担了果树(大地)的工作吗?那每个星星又是怎 样呢,它们是不同的,但它们不还是一起致力于同一目的吗?

If the gods have determined about me and about the things which must happen to me, they have determined well, for it is not easy even to imagine a deity without forethought; and as to doing me harm, why should they have any desire towards that? For what advantage would result to them from this or to the whole, which is the special object of their providence? But if they have not determined about me individually, they have certainly determined about the whole at least, and the things which happen by way of sequence in this general arrangement I ought to accept with pleasure and to be content with them. But if they determine about nothing- which it is wicked to believe, or if we do believe it, let us neither sacrifice nor pray nor swear by them nor do anything else which we do as if the gods were present and lived with us- but if however the gods determine about none of the things which concern us, I am able to determine about myself, and I can inquire about that which is useful; and that is useful to every man which is conformable to his own  constitution and nature. But my nature is rational and social; and my city and country, so far as I am Antoninus, is Rome, but so far as I am a man, it is the world. The things then which are useful to these cities are alone useful to me. Whatever happens to every man, this is for the interest of the universal: this might be sufficient. But further thou wilt observe this also as a general truth, if thou dost observe, that whatever is profitable to any man is profitable also to other men. But let the word profitable be taken here in the common sense as said of things of the middle kind, neither good nor bad.

如果神灵对于我,对于必须发生于我的事情,都已经做出了决定,那么他们的决定便是恰当 的,因为即便想像一个没有远见的神都是不容易的。至于说加给我伤害,为什么他们会打算 那样做呢?因为,那样做对他们,或者对作为他们特别眷顾的对象的整体,会产生什么好处 呢?但假如他们对我并没有做出个别决定,他们也一定至少对整体做出了决定,在这个总的 安排里依次发生的事情,我应该欣然接受,并且满足。但如果他们完全没有决定-相信这个, 乃是一件犯罪的事情,如果我们真相信这个,就让我们不祭祀,也不祈祷,也不对他们发誓, 也不做任何别的好像神灵在面前并且同我们生活在一起时我们所做的事情吧-但是,假如神 灵没有决定任何牵涉到我们的事情,我就能决定我自己了,就能对有用的事物加以考究了; 符合于一个人自己的和社会的,就我是安东尼来说,我的城市与国家是罗马;但就我是一个 人来说,我的国家就是这个世界。因此,对于这些城市有用的,对我才是有用的。无论什么 事情发生于每一个人,这是为了宇宙的利益的:这可能就足够了。但你要进一步把这视为一 个普遍真理,如果你这样做了,那对于任何一个人都有用的东西也就对其他人是有用了。但 是在此让"有用"这个词表示像通常说中性的东西那样的意义,也就是说既非好也非坏。

As it happens to thee in the amphitheatre and such places, that the continual sight of the same things and the uniformity make the spectacle wearisome, so it is in the whole of life; for all things above, below, are the same and from the same. How long then?

正像在圆形剧场和诸如此类的地方发生的情况一样,不断地看同一件东西和千篇一律的表演 使人厌倦,在整体生活中也是这样,因为所有在上、在下的事物都是同样的,从同一个地方 来的,那么还要看多久呢?

Think continually that all kinds of men and of all kinds of pursuits and of all nations are dead, so that thy thoughts come down even to Philistion and Phoebus and Origanion. Now turn thy thoughts to the other kinds of men. To that place then we must remove, where there are so many great orators, and so many noble philosophers, Heraclitus, Pythagoras, Socrates; so many heroes of former days, and so many generals after them, and tyrants; besides these, Eudoxus, Hipparchus, Archimedes, and other men of acute natural talents, great minds, lovers of labour, versatile, confident, mockers even of the perishable and ephemeral life of man, as Menippus and such as are like him. As to all these consider that they have long been in the dust. What harm then is this to them; and what to those whose names are altogether unknown? One thing here is worth a great deal, to pass thy life in truth and justice, with a benevolent disposition even to liars and unjust men.

不断地思考,所有种类的人、所有种类的追求和所有的国家都消失了,以致你的思想甚至回 溯到腓力斯逊、菲伯斯、奥里更尼安。现在把你的思想转向其他种类的人,转向那你必须退 回的地方,那儿有如此多的雄辩家;如此多的高贵哲学家:赫拉克利特、毕达哥拉斯、苏格 拉底;如此多的以前时代的英雄,如此多的追随他们的将军,以及暴君;除此之外,还有尤 多克乌斯、希帕尔克斯、阿基米德和别的具有巨大天赋、胸襟博大、热爱劳作、多才多艺和 充满自信的人,甚至那些嘲弄人的短暂和速朽生命的人,如门尼帕斯及类似于他的人。当想 -55- 着所有这些时考虑他们都早已化为灰尘。那么,这对他们有什么损害呢,这对那名字完全被 人忘地的人们有什么损害呢?在此只有一件事有很高的价值:就是真诚和正直地度过你的一 生,甚至对说谎者和不公正的人也持一种仁爱的态度。

When thou wishest to delight thyself, think of the virtues of those who live with thee; for instance, the activity of one, and the modesty of another, and the liberality of a third, and some other good quality of a fourth. For nothing delights so much as the examples of the virtues, when they are exhibited in the morals of those who live with us and present themselves in abundance, as far as is possible. Wherefore we must keep them before us.

当你打算投身快乐时,想想那些和你生活在一起的人的德性,例如某个人的,另一个人的谦 虚,第三个人的慷慨,第四个人的某一别的好品质。因为当德性的榜样在与我们一起生活的 人身上展示,并就其可能充分地呈现自身时,没有什么能比它们更使人快乐的了。因此我们 必须把这些榜样置于我们的面前。

Thou art not dissatisfied, I suppose, because thou weighest only so many litrae and not three hundred. Be not dissatisfied then that thou must live only so many years and not more; for as thou art satisfied with the amount of substance which has been assigned to thee, so be content with the time.

我猜想,你不会因你体重只有这么些利特内而不是300 利特内而不满。那么,也不要不满 于你必定只活这么些年而不是更长时间,因为,正像你满足于分派给你的身体重量,你也满 足于分派给你的时间长度。

Let us try to persuade them (men). But act even against their will, when the principles of justice lead that way. If however any man by using force stands in thy way, betake thyself to contentment and tranquility, and at the same time employ the hindrance towards the exercise of some other virtue; and remember that thy attempt was with a reservation, that thou didst not desire to do impossibilities. What then didst thou desire?- Some such effort as this.- But thou attainest thy object, if the things to which thou wast moved are accomplished.

让我们努力说服他们(人们)。当正义的原则指向这条路时,要循这条路前行,即使这违背 他们的意志。然如果有什么人用强力挡你的路,那么使自己进入满足和宁静,同时利用这些 障碍来训练别的德性,记住你的意图是有保留的,你并不欲做不可能的事情。那么你欲望什 么呢?-某种像这样的努力。-而如果你被推向的事情被完成了,你就达到了你的目的。

He who loves fame considers another man's activity to be his own good; and he who loves pleasure, his own sensations; but he who has understanding, considers his own acts to be his own good.

一个热爱名声的人把另一个人的行动看做是对他自己有利的;那热爱快乐的人也把另一个人 的行动看做是对他自己的感官有利的;但有理智的人则把他自己的行为看做是对他自己有利 的。

It is in our power to have no opinion about a thing, and not to be disturbed in our soul; for things themselves have no natural power to form our judgements.

对一件事不发表任何意见,使我们的灵魂不受扰乱,这是在我们力量范围之内的事情,因为 事物本身并没有自然的力量形成我们的判断。

Accustom thyself to attend carefully to what is said by another, and as much as it is possible, be in the speaker's mind.

使你习惯于仔细地倾听别人所说的话,尽可能地进入说话者的心灵。

That which is not good for the swarm, neither is it good for the bee.

那对蜂群不好的东西,对蜜蜂也不是好的。

If sailors abused the helmsman or the sick the doctor, would they listen to anybody else; or how could the helmsman secure the safety of those in the ship or the doctor the health of those whom he attends?

如果水手辱骂舵手或病人辱骂医生,他们还会听任何别的人的意见吗,或者舵手能保证那些 在船上的人的安全、医生能保证那些他所诊治的人的健康吗?

How many together with whom I came into the world are already gone out of it.

有多少和我一起进入这世界的人已经离开了人世。

To the jaundiced honey tastes bitter, and to those bitten by mad dogs water causes fear; and to little children the ball is a fine thing. Why then am I angry? Dost thou think that a false opinion has less power than the bile in the jaundiced or the poison in him who is bitten by a mad dog?

对于黄疸病者来说,蜜尝起来是苦的;对于狂犬病患者来说,水会引起恐惧;对于孩子们来 说,球是一种好东西。那么我为什么生气呢?你不认为一个错误的意见和黄疸病患者体内的 胆汁或狂犬病患者体内的毒素一样有力量吗?

No man will hinder thee from living according to the reason of thy own nature: nothing will happen to thee contrary to the reason of the universal nature.

没有任何人能阻止你按照你自己的理智本性生活;没有任何违反宇宙理智本性的事情对你发 生。

What kind of people are those whom men wish to please, and for what objects, and by what kind of acts? How soon will time cover all things, and how many it has covered already.

那么人们希望讨好的人是一种什么样的人呢?是因为什么目的,通过何种行为来讨好他们 呢?时间要多么迅速地覆盖一切,而且它已经覆盖了多少东西啊!