中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 7

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 WHAT is badness? It is that which thou hast often seen. And on the occasion of everything which happens keep this in mind, that it is that which thou hast often seen. Everywhere up and down thou wilt find the same things, with which the old histories are filled, those of the middle ages and those of our own day; with which cities and houses are filled now. There is nothing new: all things are both familiar and short-lived.

什么是恶?它是你司空见惯的。在发生一切事情的时候都把这牢记在心:它是你司空见惯的。 你将在上上下下一切地方都发现同样的事情,这同样的事物填充了过去时代的历史、中间时 代的历史和我们时代的历史;也充斥着现在的城市和家庭。什么新的东西:所有事物都是熟 悉的、短暂的。

How can our principles become dead, unless the impressions (thoughts) which correspond to them are extinguished? But it is in thy power continuously to fan these thoughts into a flame. I can have that opinion about anything, which I ought to have. If I can, why am I disturbed? The things which are external to my mind have no relation at all to my mind.- Let this be the state of thy affects, and thou standest erect. To recover thy life is in thy power. Look at things again as thou didst use to look at them; for in this consists the recovery of thy life.

我们的原则怎么能死去呢?除非那符合于它们的印象(思想)熄灭。但是不断地把这些思想 扇成旺盛的火焰是在你的力量范围之内。我对任何事情都能形成那种我应当拥有什么的意 见。如果我能,我为什么要烦恼呢?那在我的心灵之外的事物跟我的心灵没有任何关系。- 让这成为你的感情状态,你就能坚定地站立。恢复你的生命是在你力量范围之内,再用你过 去惯常的眼光看待事物,因为你生命的恢复就在于此。

The idle business of show, plays on the stage, flocks of sheep, herds, exercises with spears, a bone cast to little dogs, a bit of bread into fish-ponds, labourings of ants and burden-carrying, runnings about of frightened little mice, puppets pulled by strings- all alike. It is thy duty then in the midst of such things to show good humour and not a proud air; to understand however that every man is worth just so much as the things are worth about which he busies himself.

无意义的展览,舞台上的表演,羊群,兽群,刀枪的训练,一根投向小狗的骨头,一点丢在 鱼塘里的面包,蚂蚁的劳作和搬运,吓坏了老鼠的奔跑,纵操纵的木偶,诸如此类。那么, 置身于这些事物之中而表现出一种好的幽默而非骄傲就是你的职责,无论如何要懂得每个人 都是有价值的,就像他忙碌的事情是有价值的一样。

In discourse thou must attend to what is said, and in every movement thou must observe what is doing. And in the one thou shouldst see immediately to what end it refers, but in the other watch carefully what is the thing signified.

在谈话中你必须注意所说的话,在任何活动中你都必须观察在做什么。在一件事里胸应当直 接洞察它所指向的目的,而在另一件事里你应当仔细观察事物所表示的意义。

Is my understanding sufficient for this or not? If it is sufficient, I use it for the work as an instrument given by the universal nature. But if it is not sufficient, then either I retire from the work and give way to him who is able to do it better, unless there be some reason why I ought not to do so; or I do it as well as I can, taking to help me the man who with the aid of my ruling principle can do what is now fit and useful for the general good. For whatsoever either by myself or with another I can do, ought to be directed to this only, to that which is useful and well suited to society.

我的理智足以胜任这一工作吗?如果它胜任,那么我在这一工作中就把它作为宇宙本性给予 的一个工具来使用。但如果它不胜任,那么,我或者放弃这一工作,把它让给能够较好地做 它的人来做(除非有某种理由使我不应这样做);或者我尽可能好地做它,接受这样一个人 的帮助-他能借助于我的支配原则做现在是恰当并对公共利益有用的事。因为无论是我做的 事还是我能和另一个人做的事,都应当仅仅指向那对社会有用和适合于社会的事。

How many after being celebrated by fame have been given up to oblivion; and how many who have celebrated the fame of others have long been dead.

有多少人在享受赫赫威名之后被人遗忘了,又有多少人在称颂别人的威名之后亦与世长辞。

Be not ashamed to be helped; for it is thy business to do thy duty like a soldier in the assault on a town. How then, if being lame thou canst not mount up on the battlements alone, but with the help of another it is possible?

不要因被人帮助而感到羞愧,因为像一个战士在攻占城池中一样履行职责正是你的职分。那 么,如果因为瘸拐你不能自个儿走上战场,而靠另一个人的帮助你却可能时怎么办呢?

Let not future things disturb thee, for thou wilt come to them, if it shall be necessary, having with thee the same reason which now thou usest for present things.

不要让将来的事困扰你,因为如果那是必然要发生的话,你将带着你现在对待当前事物的同 样理性走向它们。

All things are implicated with one another, and the bond is holy; and there is hardly anything unconnected with any other thing. For things have been co-ordinated, and they combine to form the same universe (order). For there is one universe made up of all things, and one God who pervades all things, and one substance, and one law, one common reason in all intelligent animals, and one truth; if indeed there is also one perfection for all animals which are of the same stock and participate in the same reason.

所有的事物都是相互联结的,这一纽带是神圣的,几乎没有一个事物与任一别的事物没有联 系。因为事物都是合作的,它们结合起来形成同一宇宙(秩序)。因为,有一个由所有事物 组成的宇宙,有一个遍及所有事物的神,有一个实体,一种法,一个对所有有理智的动物都 是共同的理性,一个真理,如果也确实有一种所有来自同一根源,分享同一理性运动的尽善 尽美的话。

Everything material soon disappears in the substance of the whole; and everything formal (causal) is very soon taken back into the universal reason; and the memory of everything is very soon overwhelmed in time.

一切质料的东西不久就要消失于作为整体的实体之中,一切形式(原因)的东西也很快要回 到宇宙的理性之中,对一切事物的记忆也很快要在时间中淹没。

To the rational animal the same act is according to nature and according to reason.

对于理性的动物来说,依据本性和依据理智是一回事。

Be thou erect, or be made erect.

使你直立,否则就被扶直。

Just as it is with the members in those bodies which are united in one, so it is with rational beings which exist separate, for they have been constituted for one co-operation. And the perception of this will be more apparent to thee, if thou often sayest to thyself that I am a member (melos) of the system of rational beings. But if (using the letter r) thou sayest that thou art a part (meros) thou dost not yet love men from thy heart; beneficence does not yet delight thee for its own sake; thou still doest it barely as a thing of propriety, and not yet as doing good to thyself.

正像在那些物体中各个成分是统一体一样,各个分散的理性存在也是统而为一,因为他们是 为了一种合作而构成的。如果你经常对自己说我是理性存在体系中的一个成员(member), 那么你将更清楚地察觉这一点。但如果你说是一个部分(part),你就还没有从心里热爱人 们;你就还没有从仁爱本身中得到欢乐;你行善就还是仅仅作为一件合宜的事情来做,而尚 未把它看成也是对你自己行善。

Let there fall externally what will on the parts which can feel the effects of this fall. For those parts which have felt will complain, if they choose. But I, unless I think that what has happened is an evil, am not injured. And it is in my power not to think so.

让那要从外部降临的事情落在那可以感觉这降临效果的部分吧。因为如果那些感觉得到的部 分愿意,它们将要抱怨,但是,除非我认为发生的事情是一种恶,我不会受到伤害。而不这 样认为是在我的力量范围之内。

Whatever any one does or says, I must be good, just as if the gold, or the emerald, or the purple were always saying this, Whatever any one does or says, I must be emerald and keep my colour.

不管任何人做什么或说什么,我必须还是善,正像黄金、绿宝石或紫袍总是这样说:无论一 个人做什么或说什么,我一定还是绿宝石,保持着我的色彩。

The ruling faculty does not disturb itself; I mean, does not frighten itself or cause itself pain. But if any one else can frighten or pain it, let him do so. For the faculty itself will not by its own opinion turn itself into such ways. Let the body itself take care, if it can, that is suffer nothing, and let it speak, if it suffers. But the soul itself, that which is subject to fear, to pain, which has completely the power of forming an opinion about these things, will suffer nothing, for it will never deviate into such a judgement. The leading principle in itself wants nothing, unless it makes a want for itself; and therefore it is both free from perturbation and unimpeded, if it does not disturb and impede itself.

支配的能力并不打扰自身,我的意思是:不吓唬自己或造成自身痛苦。但如果有什么别的人 能吓唬它或使它痛苦,让他这样做吧。因为这一能力本身并不会被它自己的意见带向这条道 路。如果身体能够,让它自己照顾自己不受苦吧,如果它受苦,就让它表现出来吧。而这容 易受到恐吓和痛苦的灵魂本身,完全有力量对这些事形成一种意见的灵魂,将不受任何苦, 因为它将不会偏向这样一种判断。指导的原则本身除了需要自己之外,再不要任何东西,所 以它是免除了打扰,不受阻碍的,只要它不扰乱和阻碍自己。

Eudaemonia (happiness) is a good daemon, or a good thing. What then art thou doing here, O imagination? Go away, I entreat thee by the gods, as thou didst come, for I want thee not. But thou art come according to thy old fashion. I am not angry with thee: only go away.

Eudaemonia(幸福)是一个好神(daemon),或一个好事物。那么正在做什么呢?哦,幻 想吗?当你来时,我以神灵之外恳求你,离去吧,因为我不要幻想。但你是按你的老办法来 的,我不生你的气,而只是要你离去。

Is any man afraid of change? Why what can take place without change? What then is more pleasing or more suitable to the universal nature? And canst thou take a bath unless the wood undergoes a change? And canst thou be nourished, unless the food undergoes a change? And can anything else that is useful be accomplished without change? Dost thou not see then that for thyself also to change is just the same, and equally necessary for the universal nature?

有人害怕变化吗?但没有变化什么东西能发生呢?又怎么能使宇宙本性更愉悦或对它更适 合呢?木柴不经历一种变化你能洗澡吗?食物不经历一种变化你能得到营养吗?没有变化 其他任何有用的东西能够形成吗?你没有看到对于你来说,就像对于宇宙本性来说一样是需 要变化的吗?

Through the universal substance as through a furious torrent all bodies are carried, being by their nature united with and cooperating with the whole, as the parts of our body with one another. How many a Chrysippus, how many a Socrates, how many an Epictetus has time already swallowed up? And let the same thought occur to thee with reference to every man and thing.

所有物体被带着通过宇宙的实体,就像通过一道急流,它们按其本性与整体相统一和合作, 就像我们身体的各部分的统一与合作一样。时间已经吞没了多少个克里西普,多少个苏格拉 底,多少个埃庇克太德?让你以同样的思想来看待每一个人和每一件事吧。

One thing only troubles me, lest I should do something which the constitution of man does not allow, or in the way which it does not allow, or what it does not allow now.

只有一件事苦恼我,就是惟恐自己做出人的结构不允许的事情,或者是以它不允许的方式做 出,或者是在它不允许做的时候做出。

Near is thy forgetfulness of all things; and near the forgetfulness of thee by all.

你忘记所有东西的时刻已经临近,你被所有人忘记的时候也已经临近。

It is peculiar to man to love even those who do wrong. And this happens, if when they do wrong it occurs to thee that they are kinsmen, and that they do wrong through ignorance and unintentionally, and that soon both of you will die; and above all, that the wrong-doer has done thee no harm, for he has not made thy ruling faculty worse than it was before.

爱甚至于那些做错事的人,是人特有的性质。如果当他们做错事时你想到他们是你的同胞, 这种情况就发生了,他们是因为无知和不自觉而做错事的,你们都不久就要死去,特别是, 做错事者没有造成任何伤害,因为他没有使你的自我支配能力变得比以前要坏。

The universal nature out of the universal substance, as if it were wax, now moulds a horse, and when it has broken this up, it uses the material for a tree, then for a man, then for something else; and each of these things subsists for a very short time. But it is no hardship for the vessel to be broken up, just as there was none in its being fastened together.

在宇宙实体之外的宇宙本性,就仿佛实体是蜡,现在塑一匹马,当它打破马时,它用这质料 造一棵树,然后是一个人,然后又是别的什么东西,这些东西每个都只存在一个很短的时间。 而对于容器来说,被打破对它并不是什么苦事,正像它的被聚合对它也不是什么苦事一样。

A scowling look is altogether unnatural; when it is often assumed, the result is that all comeliness dies away, and at last is so completely extinguished that it cannot be again lighted up at all. Try to conclude from this very fact that it is contrary to reason. For if even the perception of doing wrong shall depart, what reason is there for living any longer?

蹙眉苦愁的神态是不自然的,如果经常这样,其结果是所有的美丽清秀都消散了,最后是荡然无存以致完全不可能再恢复。试着从这一事实得出它是违反理性的结论吧。因为如果甚至 对做了错事的知觉都将消失,还有什么理性会继续存在呢?

Nature which governs the whole will soon change all things which thou seest, and out of their substance will make other things, and again other things from the substance of them, in order that the world may be ever new.

支配着整体的理性不久将改变你见到的所有事物,而别的事物将从它们的实体中产生,这些 事物又再被另一些事物取代,依此进行,世界就可以永远是新的。

When a man has done thee any wrong, immediately consider with what opinion about good or evil he has done wrong. For when thou hast seen this, thou wilt pity him, and wilt neither wonder nor be angry. For either thou thyself thinkest the same thing to be good that he does or another thing of the same kind. It is thy duty then to pardon him. But if thou dost not think such things to be good or evil, thou wilt more readily be well disposed to him who is in error.

当一个人对你做了什么错事时,马上考虑他是抱一种什么善恶观做了这些错事。因为当你明 白了他的善恶观,你将怜悯他,即不奇怪也不生气。因为或者你自己会想与他做的相同的事 是善,或者认为另一件同样性质的事是善的,那么宽恕他就是你的义务。但如果你不认为这 样的事情是善的或恶的,你将更愿意好好地对待那在错误中的人。

Think not so much of what thou hast not as of what thou hast: but of the things which thou hast select the best, and then reflect how eagerly they would have been sought, if thou hadst them not. At the same time however take care that thou dost not through being so pleased with them accustom thyself to overvalue them, so as to be disturbed if ever thou shouldst not have them.

不要老想着你没有的和已有的东西,而要想着你认为最好的东西,然后思考如果你还未拥有 它们,要多么热切地追求它们。同时无论如何要注意,你还没有如此喜爱它们以致使自己习 惯于十分尊重它们,这样使你在没有得到它们时就感到烦恼不安。

Retire into thyself. The rational principle which rules has this nature, that it is content with itself when it does what is just, and so secures tranquility.

退回自身。那支配的理性原则有这一本性,当它做正当的事时就满足于自身,这样就保证了 宁静。

Wipe out the imagination. Stop the pulling of the strings. Confine thyself to the present. Understand well what happens either to thee or to another. Divide and distribute every object into the causal (formal) and the material. Think of thy last hour. Let the wrong which is done by a man stay there where the wrong was done.

驱散幻想。不要受它们的牵引。把自己限制在当前。好好地理解对你或是对别人发生的事情, 把每一物体划分为原因的(形式的)和质料的。想着你最后的时刻。让一个人所做的错事停 留在原处。

Direct thy attention to what is said. Let thy understanding enter into the things that are doing and the things which do them.

你要注意所说的话。让你的理解进入正在做的事和做这些事的人的内部。

Adorn thyself with simplicity and modesty and with indifference towards the things which lie between virtue and vice. Love mankind. Follow God. The poet says that Law rules all.- And it is enough to remember that Law rules all.

用朴实、谦虚以及对与德和恶无关的事物的冷淡来装饰你自己。热爱人类。追随神灵。诗人 说,法统治着一切,-记住法统治着一切就足够了。

About death: Whether it is a dispersion, or a resolution into atoms, or annihilation, it is either extinction or change.

关于死亡:它不是一种消散,就是一种化为原子的分解,或者虚无,它或者是毁灭,或者是 改变。

About pain: The pain which is intolerable carries us off; but that which lasts a long time is tolerable; and the mind maintains its own tranquility by retiring into itself, and the ruling faculty is not made worse. But the parts which are harmed by pain, let them, if they can, give their opinion about it.

关于痛苦:那不可忍受的痛苦夺去我们的生命,而那长期持续的痛期的痛苦是可以忍受的; 心灵通过隐入自身而保持着它自己的宁静,支配的能力并不因此变坏。至于被痛苦损害的(身 体)部分,如果它们能够,就让它们表示对痛苦的意见吧。

About fame: Look at the minds of those who seek fame, observe what they are, and what kind of things they avoid, and what kind of things they pursue. And consider that as the heaps of sand piled on one another hide the former sands, so in life the events which go before are soon covered by those which come after.

关于名声:注意那些追求名声的人的同内心,观察他们是什么人,他们避开什么事物,他们 追求什么事物。想想那积聚起来的沙堆掩埋了以前的沙,所以在生命中也是先去的事物迅速 被后来的事物掩盖。

From Plato: The man who has an elevated mind and takes a view of all time and of all substance, dost thou suppose it possible for him to think that human life is anything great? it is not possible, he said.- Such a man then will think that death also is no evil.- Certainly not.

引自柏拉图:那种有崇高心灵并观照全部时间和整体的人,你想他会认为人的生命是一种伟 大的东西吗?那是不可能的,他说。-那么这样一个心灵也不会把死看做是恶,肯定不会。

From Antisthenes: It is royal to do good and to be abused. 引自安提斯坦尼:国王的命运就是行善事而遭恶誉。

It is a base thing for the countenance to be obedient and to regulate and compose itself as the mind commands, and for the mind not to be regulated and composed by itself.

对于面容来说,当心灵发布命令时,它只服从自己,只调节和定自己,这是一件坏事,而对 于心灵来说,它不由自己来调节和镇定,也是一件坏事。

It is not right to vex ourselves at things, For they care nought about it.

因事物而使我们自己烦恼是不对的, 因为它们与你漠不相关。

To the immortal gods and us give joy.

面向不朽的神将使我们欢愉。

Life must be reaped like the ripe ears of corn: One man is born; another dies. 生命必须像成熟的麦穗一样收割, 一个人诞生,另一个人赴死。 If gods care not for me and for my children, There is a reason for it.

如果神灵不关心我和我的孩子, 这样做自然有它的道理。

For the good is with me, and the just.

因为善与我同在,正义与我同在。

No joining others in their wailing, no violent emotion.

不要加入别人的哭泣,不要有太强烈的感情。

From Plato: But I would make this man a sufficient answer, which is this: Thou sayest not well, if thou thinkest that a man who is good for anything at all ought to compute the hazard of life or death, and should not rather look to this only in all that he does, whether he is doing what is just or unjust, and the works of a good or a bad man.

引自柏拉图:但是我将给这个人一个满意的回答,这就是:你说得不好,如果你认为一个对 所有事情都擅长的人应当计算生或死的可能性,而不是宁愿在他所有做的事情中仅仅注意他 是否做得正当,是否做的是一个善良人的工作。

For thus it is, men of Athens, in truth: wherever a man has placed himself thinking it the best place for him, or has been placed by a commander, there in my opinion he ought to stay and to abide the hazard, taking nothing into the reckoning, either death or anything else, before the baseness of deserting his post.

雅典人啊,因为这确实是这样:一个人无论置身于什么地方,都认为那是对他最好的地方, 或者是由一个主宰者将他放置的地方。在我看来,他应当逗留在那儿,顺从这偶然,面对他 应得的卑贱的职分,不盘算死或任何别的事情。

But, my good friend, reflect whether that which is noble and good is not something different from saving and being saved; for as to a man living such or such a time, at least one who is really a man, consider if this is not a thing to be dismissed from the thoughts: and there must be no love of life: but as to these matters a man must intrust them to the deity and believe what the women say, that no man can escape his destiny, the next inquiry being how he may best live the time that he has to live.

我的好朋友,且想想那高贵的和善的事情是不是某种与拯救和得救不同的事情;因为对一个 生活这么长或那么长一段时间的人、至少是一个真正的人来说,考虑一下,是否这不是一件 脱离这种思想的事情:那儿一定不存在对生命的任何爱恋,但关于这些事情,一个人必须把 它们托付给神,并相信命运女神所说的,没有谁能逃脱自己的命运,接着要探究的是:他如何才能最好地度过他必须度过的这一段时间。

Look round at the courses of the stars, as if thou wert going along with them; and constantly consider the changes of the elements into one another; for such thoughts purge away the filth of the terrene life.

环视星球的运动,仿佛你是和它们一起运行,不断地考虑元素的嬗递变化,因为这 种思想将濯去尘世生命的污秽。

This is a fine saying of Plato: That he who is discoursing about men should look also at earthly things as if he viewed them from some higher place; should look at them in their assemblies, armies, agricultural labours, marriages, treaties, births, deaths, noise of the courts of justice, desert places, various nations of barbarians, feasts, lamentations, markets, a mixture of all things and an orderly combination of contraries.

这是柏拉图的一个很好的说法:谈论人们的人,也应当以仿佛是从某个更高的地方俯视的方 式来观察世事,应当从人们的聚集、军事、农业劳动、婚姻、谈判、生死、法庭的吵闹、不 毛之地、各种野蛮民族、饮宴、哀恸、市场、各种事情的混合和各个国家的有秩序的联合来 看待他们。

Consider the past; such great changes of political supremacies. Thou mayest foresee also the things which will be. For they will certainly be of like form, and it is not possible that they should deviate from the order of the things which take place now: accordingly to have contemplated human life for forty years is the same as to have contemplated it for ten thousand years. For what more wilt thou see?

想想过去,政治霸权的如此巨变。你也可以预见将要发生的事情。因为它们肯定是形式相似 的,它们不可能偏离现在发生的事物的秩序轨道,因此思考四十年的人类生活就跟思考一万 年的人类生活一样。因为你怎么能看到更多的东西呢?

That which has grown from the earth to the earth, But that which has sprung from heavenly seed, Back to the heavenly realms returns. This is either a dissolution of the mutual involution of the atoms, or a similar dispersion of the unsentient elements.

那从地里生长的东西要回到地里,而那从神圣的种子诞生的,也将回到天国。这要末是原子 的相互结合的分解;要末是无知觉的元素的一种类似的消散。

With food and drinks and cunning magic arts. Turning the channel's course to 'scape from death. The breeze which heaven has sent.We must endure, and toil without complaining.

带着食物、酒和狡猾的魔术,蹑步通过狭道想逃脱一死,而天国送出来的微风,我们必须忍 受,无抱怨地忙碌。

Another may be more expert in casting his opponent; but he is not more social, nor more modest, nor better disciplined to meet all that happens, nor more considerate with respect to the faults of his neighbours.

一个人可能更善于摔倒他的对手,可是他不是更友善、更谦虚;他没有得到更好的训练来对 付所有发生的事情,也没有更慎重地对待他邻人的过错。

Where any work can be done conformably to the reason which is common to gods and men, there we have nothing to fear: for where we are able to get profit by means of the activity which is successful and proceeds according to our constitution, there no harm is to be suspected.

在任何工作都能按照符合于神和人的理性做出的地方,也没有任何东西值得我们害怕,因为 我们能够通过按我们的结构成功并继续进行的活动而使自己得益,而在这种地方,无疑不会 有任何伤害。

Everywhere and at all times it is in thy power piously to acquiesce in thy present condition, and to behave justly to those who are about thee, and to exert thy skill upon thy present thoughts, that nothing shall steal into them without being well examined.

在任何场合的时候,这些都是在你的力量范围之内的:虔诚地默认你现在的条件;公正地对 待你周围的人;努力地完善你现在的思想技艺,未经好好考察不让任何东西潜入思想之中。

Do not look around thee to discover other men's ruling principles, but look straight to this, to what nature leads thee, both the universal nature through the things which happen to thee, and thy own nature through the acts which must be done by thee. But every being ought to do that which is according to its constitution; and all other things have been constituted for the sake of rational beings, just as among irrational things the inferior for the sake of the superior, but the rational for the sake of one another.

你不要环顾四周以发现别人的指导原则,而要直接注意那引导你的本性,注意那通过对你发 生的事而表现的宇宙的本性和通过必须由你做的行为而表现的你的本性。而每一在都应当做 合乎它的结构的事情,所有别的事物都是为了理性存在物而被构成的,在无理性的事物中低 等事物是为了高等事物而存在的,但理性动物是彼此为了对方而存在的。

The prime principle then in man's constitution is the social. And the second is not to yield to the persuasions of the body, for it is the peculiar office of the rational and intelligent motion to circumscribe itself, and never to be overpowered either by the motion of the senses or of the appetites, for both are animal; but the intelligent motion claims superiority and does not permit itself to be overpowered by the others. And with good reason, for it is formed by nature to use all of them. The third thing in the rational constitution is freedom from error and from deception. Let then the ruling principle holding fast to these things go straight on, and it has what is its own.

那么在人的结构中首要的原则就是友爱的原则。其次是不要屈服于身体的引诱。因为身体只 是有理性者和理智活动确定自己范围的特殊场所;不要被感官或嗜欲的运动压倒,因为这两 者都是动物的,而理智活动却要取得一种至高无上性,不允许自己被其他运动所凌驾。保持 健全的理性,因为它天生是为了运用所有事物而形成的。在理性结构中的第三件事是:摆脱 错误和欺骗。那么紧紧把握这些原则的支配能力正直地行进,它就能得到属它所有的。

Consider thyself to be dead, and to have completed thy life up to the present time; and live according to nature the remainder which is allowed thee.

想到你是要死的,要在当前的某个时刻结束你的生命,那么按照本性度过留给你的时日。

Love that only which happens to thee and is spun with the thread of thy destiny. For what is more suitable?

热爱那仅仅发生于你的事情,仅仅为你纺的命运之线,因为,有什么比这更适合于你呢?

In everything which happens keep before thy eyes those to whom the same things happened, and how they were vexed, and treated them as strange things, and found fault with them: and now where are they? Nowhere. Why then dost thou too choose to act in the same way? And why dost thou not leave these agitations which are foreign to nature, to those who cause them and those who are moved by them? And why art thou not altogether intent upon the right way of making use of the things which happen to thee? For then thou wilt use them well, and they will be a material for thee to work on. Only attend to thyself, and resolve to be a good man in every act which thou doest: and remember...

面对发生的一切事情,回忆一下这样一些人,同样的事也曾对他们发生,他们曾是多么烦恼 啊,把这些事情看做奇怪的、不满于它们,而现在他们到哪里去了呢?无处可寻。那么你为 什么愿意以同样的方式行动呢?你为什么不把这些与本性相歧异的焦虑留那些引起它们并 被它们推动的人呢?你为什么不完全专注于利用对你发生的事物的正确方式呢?因为那样 你将好好地利用它们,它们将给你的工作提供质料。仅仅倾听自身,在你做的一切行为中都 决心做一个好人,记住……

Look within.Within is the fountain of good, and it will ever bubble up, if thou wilt ever dig.

观照内心。善的源泉是在内心,如果你挖掘,它将汩汩地涌出。

The body ought to be compact, and to show no irregularity either in motion or attitude. For what the mind shows in the face by maintaining in it the expression of intelligence and propriety, that ought to be required also in the whole body. But all of these things should be observed without affectation.

身体应当是简洁的,无论在活动中还是姿态上都不表现出杂乱无章。因为心灵通过脸容表现 的理智和合宜,也应当体现在整个身体之中。但所有这些事情都应当毫不矫揉造作地去做。

The art of life is more like the wrestler's art than the dancer's, in respect of this, that it should stand ready and firm to meet onsets which are sudden and unexpected.

在这方面,生活的艺术更像角斗士的艺术而不是舞蹈者的艺术:即它应当坚定地站立,准备 着对付突如其来的进攻。

Constantly observe who those are whose approbation thou wishest to have, and what ruling principles they possess. For then thou wilt neither blame those who offend involuntarily, nor wilt thou want their approbation, if thou lookest to the sources of their opinions and appetites.

总是观察那些你希望得到他们嘉许的人,看看他们拥有什么样的支配原则。因为那 样你将不会谴责那些不由自主地冒犯你的人,你也不会想要得到他们的嘉许,只要你看清了 他们的意见和口味的根源。

Every soul, the philosopher says, is involuntarily deprived of truth; consequently in the same way it is deprived of justice and temperance and benevolence and everything of the kind. It is most necessary to bear this constantly in mind, for thus thou wilt be more gentle towards all.

哲学家说,每一灵魂都不由自主地偏离真理,因而也同样不由自主地偏离正义、节制、仁爱 -67- 和诸如此类的品质。总是把这牢记在心是很有必要的,因为这样你就将对所有人更和蔼。

In every pain let this thought be present, that there is no dishonour in it, nor does it make the governing intelligence worse, for it does not damage the intelligence either so far as the intelligence is rational or so far as it is social. Indeed in the case of most pains let this remark of Epicurus aid thee, that pain is neither intolerable nor everlasting, if thou bearest in mind that it has its limits, and if thou addest nothing to it in imagination: and remember this too, that we do not perceive that many things which are disagreeable to us are the same as pain, such as excessive drowsiness, and the being scorched by heat, and the having no appetite. When then thou art discontented about any of these things, say to thyself, that thou art yielding to pain.

在任何痛苦中都让这一思想出现,即在这痛苦中并没有耻辱,它并不使支配的理智变坏,因 为就理智是理性或社会的而言,它并不损害理智。的确,在很痛苦的时候也可以让伊壁鸠鲁 的这些话来帮助你:痛苦不是不可忍受或永远持续的,只要你记住它有它的界限,只要你不 在想像中增加什么东西给它,也记住这一点,我们并没有觉察,我们把许多使我们不惬意的 事情也感觉为痛苦,像十分瞌睡、燥热和失去胃口。然后当你不满于这些事情时,你就对自 己说,我是在遭受痛苦。

Take care not to feel towards the inhuman, as they feel towards men.

注意,对薄情寡义的人,不要像他们感觉别人那样感觉他们。

How do we know if Telauges was not superior in character to Socrates? For it is not enough that Socrates died a more noble death, and disputed more skilfully with the sophists, and passed the night in the cold with more endurance, and that when he was bid to arrest Leon of Salamis, he considered it more noble to refuse, and that he walked in a swaggering way in the streets- though as to this fact one may have great doubts if it was true. But we ought to inquire, what kind of a soul it was that Socrates possessed, and if he was able to be content with being just towards men and pious towards the gods, neither idly vexed on account of men's villainy, nor yet making himself a slave to any man's ignorance, nor receiving as strange anything that fell to his share out of the universal, nor enduring it as intolerable, nor allowing his understanding to sympathize with the affects of the miserable flesh.

我们怎么知道泰拉格斯在品格上不如苏格拉底优越呢?因为仅下面这些还是不够的:苏格拉 底有一更高贵的死;更巧妙地与智者辩论;更能忍耐寒冷的冬夜;当他被命令去逮捕萨拉米 的莱昂时,他认为拒绝是更高尚的;他昂首阔步地在街上走过-虽然这一事实人们很可能怀 疑其真实性。此外我们还应当探究:苏格拉底拥有一颗什么样的灵魂,是否他能够满足于公 正地对待人和虔诚地对待神,不无益地为人们的犯罪苦恼,同时也不使自己屈服于任何人的 无知,不把从宇宙降临于他的任何事情看做是奇怪的,不把它作为不可忍受的东西,不允许 他的理智与可怜的肉体的爱好发生共鸣。

Nature has not so mingled the intelligence with the composition of the body, as not to have allowed thee the power of circumscribing thyself and of bringing under subjection to thyself all that is thy own; for it is very possible to be a divine man and to be recognised as such by no one. Always bear this in mind; and another thing too, that very little indeed is necessary for living a happy life. And because thou hast despaired of becoming a dialectician and skilled in the knowledge of nature, do not for this reason renounce the hope of being both free and modest and social and obedient to God.

自然并没有如此混合你的理智与身体结构,以致不容许你有确定自身的力量和使你自己的一 切服从你支配的力量;因为成为一个神圣的人却不被人如此承认是很有可能的。要总是把这 牢记在心:过一种幸福生活所需要的东西确实是很少的。不要因为你无望变成一个自然知识 领域中的辩证家和能手,就放弃成为一个自由、谦虚、友善和遵从神的人的希望。

It is in thy power to live free from all compulsion in the greatest tranquility of mind, even if all the world cry out against thee as much as they choose, and even if wild beasts tear in pieces the members of this kneaded matter which has grown around thee. For what hinders the mind in the midst of all this from maintaining itself in tranquility and in a just judgement of all surrounding things and in a ready use of the objects which are presented to it, so that the judgement may say to the thing which falls under its observation: This thou art in substance (reality), though in men's opinion thou mayest appear to be of a different kind; and the use shall say to that which falls under the hand: Thou art the thing that I was seeking; for to me that which presents itself is always a material for virtue both rational and political, and in a word, for the exercise of art, which belongs to man or God. For everything which happens has a relationship either to God or man, and is neither new nor difficult to handle, but usual and apt matter to work on.

在心灵的最大宁静中免除所有压力而生活是在你的力量范围之内,即使全世界的人都尽其所 欲地叫喊着反对你;即使野兽把裹着你的这一捏制的皮囊的各个撕成碎片。因为置身于所有 阻碍物中的心灵,是在宁静中、在对所有周围的事物的一种正确的判断中,在对提交给它的 物体的一种径直运用中坚持自己以致这判断可以对落入它的视线的事物说:你确实存在(是 一实体),然而在人们的意见中你可以呈现为另一种不同的模样;这运用也将对落入它手的 事物说:你是我正在追求的事物,因为对于我来说,那出现的事物始终是可以用于理智的和 政治的德性的质料,一句话,是可以用于那属于人或神的艺术训练的。因为一切发生的事情 都或者与神或者与人有一种联系,决不是新的和难于把握的,而是有用的和方便的工作材料。

The perfection of moral character consists in this, in passing every day as the last, and in being neither violently excited nor torpid nor playing the hypocrite.

道德品格的完善在于,把每一天都作为最后一天度过,既不对刺激做出猛烈的反应,也不麻 木不仁或者表现虚伪。

The gods who are immortal are not vexed because during so long a time they must tolerate continually men such as they are and so many of them bad; and besides this, they also take care of them in all ways. But thou, who art destined to end so soon, art thou wearied of enduring the bad, and this too when thou art one of them?

不朽的神是不烦恼的,因为他们在如此长的时间里必须不断地忍受这样的人们,忍受他们中 的许多恶人,此外,神也从各个方面关心他们。但是,作为注定很快要死去的人,你就厌倦 了忍受恶人吗,而且当你是他们中的一个时也是这样?

It is a ridiculous thing for a man not to fly from his own badness, which is indeed possible, but to fly from other men's badness, which is impossible.

对一个人来说这是一件可笑的事情:他不从他自己的恶逃开-这的确是可能的;他竟要从别 人的恶逃开-而这是不可能的。

Whatever the rational and political (social) faculty finds to be neither intelligent nor social, it properly judges to be inferior to itself.

无论哪种理性和政治(社会)的能力发现(自己)不是理智的也不是社会的,它就恰当地判 断(自己)是低于自身的。

When thou hast done a good act and another has received it, why dost thou look for a third thing besides these, as fools do, either to have the reputation of having done a good act or to obtain a return?

当你做了一件好的事情,另一个人由此得益,你为什么要像傻瓜一样寻求除此之外的第三件 事-得到做了一件善行的名声或获得一种回报呢?

No man is tired of receiving what is useful. But it is useful to act according to nature. Do not then be tired of receiving what is useful by doing it to others.

无人厌倦收到有用的东西。而按照本性行动是有用的。那么就不要厌倦通过别人做这些事而 收到有用的东西吧。

The nature of the An moved to make the universe. But now either everything that takes place comes by way of consequence or continuity; or even the chief things towards which the ruling power of the universe directs its own movement are governed by no rational principle. If this is remembered it will make thee more tranquil in many things.

大全的本性运动着产生宇宙。而现在发生的一切事物或者是作为结果、或者是作为连续出现 的,甚或那宇宙支配力量本身的运动所指向的主要事物也不受理性原则的支配。如果记住这 一点,将使你在很多事情中更为宁静.