中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 8

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THIS reflection also tends to the removal of the desire of empty fame, that it is no longer in thy power to have lived the whole of thy life, or at least thy life from thy youth upwards, like a philosopher; but both to many others and to thyself it is plain that thou art far from philosophy. Thou hast fallen into disorder then, so that it is no longer easy for thee to get the reputation of a philosopher; and thy plan of life also opposes it. If then thou hast truly seen where the matter lies, throw away the thought, How thou shalt seem to others, and be content if thou shalt live the rest of thy life in such wise as thy nature wills. Observe then what it wills, and let nothing else distract thee; for thou hast had experience of many wanderings without having found happiness anywhere, not in syllogisms, nor in wealth, nor in reputation, nor in enjoyment, nor anywhere. Where is it then? In doing what man's nature requires. How then shall a man do this? If he has principles from which come his affects and his acts. What principles? Those which relate to good and bad: the belief that there is nothing good for man, which does not make him just, temperate, manly, free; and that there is nothing bad, which does not do the contrary to what has been mentioned.

这一反思也有助于消除对于虚名的欲望,即像一个哲学家一样度过你的整个一生,或至少度 过你从青年以后的生活,这已不再在你的力量范围之内了;你和许多别的人都很明白你是远 离哲学的。然后你落入了纷乱无序,以致你得到一个哲学家的名声不再是容易的了,你的生 活计划也不符合它。那么如果你真正看清了问题的所在,就驱开这一想法吧。你管别人是怎样看你呢,只要你将以你的本性所欲的这种方式度过你的余生你就是满足的。那么注意你的 本性意欲什么,不要让任何别的东西使你分心,因为你有过许多流浪的经验却在哪儿都没有 找到幸福:在三段法中没有,在财富中没有,在名声中没有,在享乐中没有,在任何地方都 没有找到幸福。那么幸福在哪里?就在于做人的本性所要求的事情。那么一个人将怎样做它 呢?如果他拥有作为他的爱好和行为之来源的原则。什么原则呢?那些有关善恶的原则:即 深信没有什么东西于人是好的-如果它不使人公正、节制、勇敢和自由;没有什么东西对人 是坏的-如果它不使人沾染与前述品质相反的品质。

On the occasion of every act ask thyself, How is this with respect to me? Shall I repent of it? A little time and I am dead, and all is gone. What more do I seek, if what I am now doing is work of an intelligent living being, and a social being, and one who is under the same law with God?

在采取每一个行动时都问自己,它是怎样联系于我呢?我以后将后悔做这事么?还一点点时 间我就要死,所有的都要逝去。如果我现在做的事是一个有理智的人的工作,一个合社会的 人的工作,一个处在与神同样的法之下的人的工作,那么我还更有何求呢?

Alexander and Gaius and Pompeius, what are they in comparison with Diogenes and Heraclitus and Socrates? For they were acquainted with things, and their causes (forms), and their matter, and the ruling principles of these men were the same. But as to the others, how many things had they to care for, and to how many things were they slaves?

亚历山大、盖耶斯和庞培与第欧根尼、赫拉克利特、苏格拉底比较起来是什么人呢?由于 他们熟悉事物,熟知他们的原因(形式)、他们的质料,这些人的支配原则都是同样的。但 在后者看来,他们必须照管多少事物,他们是多少事情的奴隶啊!

Consider that men will do the same things nevertheless, even though thou shouldst burst.

考虑一下,人们无论如何也要做同样的事情,即使你将勃然大怒。

This is the chief thing: Be not perturbed, for all things are according to the nature of the universal; and in a little time thou wilt be nobody and nowhere, like Hadrian and Augustus. In the next place having fixed thy eyes steadily on thy business look at it, and at the same time remembering that it is thy duty to be a good man, and what man's nature demands, do that without turning aside; and speak as it seems to thee most just, only let it be with a good disposition and with modesty and without hypocrisy.

主要的事情在于:不要被打扰,因为所有的事物都是合乎宇宙本性的,很快你就将化为乌有, 再也无处可寻,就像赫德里安、奥古斯都那样。其次要聚精会神地注意你的事情,同时记住 做一个好人是你的义务,无论人的本性要求什么,做所要求的事而不要搁置;说你看来是最 恰当的话,只是要以一种好的气质、以谦虚和毫不虚伪的态度说出来。

The nature of the universal has this work to do, to remove to that place the things which are in this, to change them, to take them away hence, and to carry them there. All things are change, yet we need not fear anything new. All things are familiar to us; but the distribution of them still remains the same.

宇宙的本性有这一工作要做,即把这个地方的事物移到那个地方,改变它们,把它们从此带 到彼处。所有事物都是变化的,但我们没有必要害怕任何新的东西。所有的事物都是我们熟 悉的,而对这些事物的分配也保持着同样。

Every nature is contented with itself when it goes on its way well; and a rational nature goes on its way well, when in its thoughts it assents to nothing false or uncertain, and when it directs its movements to social acts only, and when it confines its desires and aversions to the things which are in its power, and when it is satisfied with everything that is assigned to it by the common nature. For of this common nature every particular nature is a part, as the nature of the leaf is a part of the nature of the plant; except that in the plant the nature of the leaf is part of a nature which has not perception or reason, and is subject to be impeded; but the nature of man is part of a nature which is not subject to impediments, and is intelligent and just, since it gives to everything in equal portions and according to its worth, times, substance, cause (form), activity, and incident. But examine, not to discover that any one thing compared with any other single thing is equal in all respects, but by taking all the parts together of one thing and comparing them with all the parts together of another.

每一本性当它在循自己的路行进得很好时都是满足于自身的,当一个理性的本性在其思想中 不同意任何错误的或不确定的东西时;当它使自己的活动仅仅指向有益于社会的行为时;当 它把它的欲望和厌恶限制在那属于自己力量范围之内的事物上时;当它满足于那普遍本性分 派给它的一切事物时,我们就说一个理性的本性循自己的路行进得很好。因为每一特殊本性 都是这一共同本性的一部分,正像叶子的本性是这一植物本性的一部分一样,但在植物那里, 叶子的本性则是这样一种本性的一部分,这种本性不易受到阻碍,是理智和公正的,因为它 根据每一事物的价值平等地给予一切事物以时间、实体、原因(形式)、活动和事件。但我 们的考察并不是要发现,任何一个事物和任一别的的个别事物相比较在所有方面都是平等 的,而是要把结为一个事物的所有部分与组成另一个事物的所有部分相比较。

Thou hast not leisure or ability to read. But thou hast leisure or ability to check arrogance: thou hast leisure to be superior to pleasure and pain: thou hast leisure to be superior to love of fame, and not to be vexed at stupid and ungrateful people, nay even to care for them.

你没有闲空或能力阅读,但是你有闲空或能力防止傲慢,你有闲空超越快乐和痛苦,你有闲 空超越对虚名的热爱,不要烦恼于愚蠢和忘恩负义的人们,甚至不要理会他们。

Let no man any longer hear thee finding fault with the court life or with thy own.

不要让任何人再听到你对宫廷生活或对你自己生活的不满。

Repentance is a kind of self-reproof for having neglected something useful; but that which is good must be something useful, and the perfect good man should look after it. But no such man would ever repent of having refused any sensual pleasure. Pleasure then is neither good nor useful.

后悔是一种因为忽视了某件有用的事情而作的自我斥责,而那善的东西必定也是有用的,完 善的人应当追求它。但完善的人没有一个会后悔拒绝了感官的快乐。这样快乐就既非善的亦 非有用的。

This thing, what is it in itself, in its own constitution? What is its substance and material? And what its causal nature (or form)? And what is it doing in the world? And how long does it subsist?

一个事物,它自身是什么,自身的结构是什么?它的实体和原料是什么?它的原因的本性(或 形式)又是什么?它在这世界上正做什么?它要继续存在多久?

When thou risest from sleep with reluctance, remember that it is according to thy constitution and -72- according to human nature to perform social acts, but sleeping is common also to irrational animals. But that which is according to each individual's nature is also more peculiarly its own, and more suitable to its nature, and indeed also more agreeable.

当你不情愿地从眠床上起来时,记住这是按照你的结构和人的本性去从事社会活动,而睡眠 却是对无理智的动物也是同样的。但那以每个个体的本性为据的东西,也是更特殊地属他自 己的东西,是更适合于他的本性的,也确实更能带来愉悦。

Constantly and, if it be possible, on the occasion of every impression on the soul, apply to it the principles of Physic, of Ethic, and of Dialectic.

如果可能的话,不断地对灵魂收到的每一印象应用物理学、伦理学和辩证的原则。

Whatever man thou meetest with, immediately say to thyself: What opinions has this man about good and bad? For if with respect to pleasure and pain and the causes of each, and with respect to fame and ignominy, death and life, he has such and such opinions, it will seem nothing wonderful or strange to me, if he does such and such things; and I shall bear in mind that he is compelled to do so.

无论你遇见什么人,径直对自己说:这个人对善恶持什么意见?因为,如果他对苦乐及其原 因,对荣辱、生死持这样那样的意见,那么他做出这样那样的行为,对我来说就没有任何值 得奇怪和不可解的地方了,我将在心里牢记他是不能不这样做的。

Remember that as it is a shame to be surprised if the fig-tree produces figs, so it is to be surprised if the world produces such and such things of which it is productive; and for the physician and the helmsman it is a shame to be surprised, if a man has a fever, or if the wind is unfavourable.

记住:正像对无花果树结出了无花果感到大惊小怪是一种羞愧一样,对这世界产生了本来就 是它产物的事物大惊小怪也是一种羞愧,对于医生来说,如果他对一个人患了热病大惊小怪; 或者一个舵手对风向不遂人意大惊小怪,对他们来说都是一种羞愧。

Remember that to change thy opinion and to follow him who corrects thy error is as consistent with freedom as it is to persist in thy error. For it is thy own, the activity which is exerted according to thy own movement and judgement, and indeed according to thy own understanding too.

记住:改变你的意见,追随纠正你缺点的人,这跟要坚持你的错误一样,是和自由一致的。 因为这是你自己的活动,这活动是根据你自己的运动和判断,也的确是根据你自己的理解力 做出的。

If a thing is in thy own power, why dost thou do it? But if it is in the power of another, whom dost thou blame? The atoms (chance) or the gods? Both are foolish. Thou must blame nobody. For if thou canst, correct that which is the cause; but if thou canst not do this, correct at least the thing itself; but if thou canst not do even this, of what use is it to thee to find fault? For nothing should be done without a purpose.

如果一件事是在你的力量范围之内,为什么不做它呢?但如果它是在另一个人的力量范围之 内,你责怪谁呢?责怪原子(偶然)抑或神灵?不论怪谁都是愚蠢的。你决不要责怪任何人。 因为如果你能够,就去改变那原因;但如果你不能够,那至少去改正事物本身;而如果连这 你也做不到,那你不满有什么用呢?因为没有什么事物是不带有某种目的做出的。

That which has died falls not out of the universe. If it stays here, it also changes here, and is dissolved into its proper parts, which are elements of the universe and of thyself. And these too change, and they murmur not.

那死去的东西并不落到宇宙之外。如果它逗留在这里,它也在这儿改变,被分解为恰当的部 分-即宇宙的元素和你自身的元素。它们也在变化,且不发牢骚。

Everything exists for some end, a horse, a vine. Why dost thou wonder? Even the sun will say, I am for some purpose, and the rest of the gods will say the same. For what purpose then art thou? to enjoy pleasure? See if common sense allows this.

一切事物存在都有某种目的,如一匹马、一棵葡萄树。那你为什么奇怪呢?甚至太阳也要说, 我存在是有某种目的的,其余的神灵也要同样说。那么你是为什么目的而存在呢?为了享受 快乐吗?看看常识是否允许这样说。

Nature has had regard in everything no less to the end than to the beginning and the continuance, just like the man who throws up a ball. What good is it then for the ball to be thrown up, or harm for it to come down, or even to have fallen? And what good is it to the bubble while it holds together, or what harm when it is burst? The same may be said of a light also.

自然在每一事物结尾时对它的关心不亚于在其开始或中途对它的关心,就像往上投球的人一 样。那么对于球来说,被投上去对它有什么好处呢?而开始落下甚或落下地对它又有什么损 害呢?对于一个气泡来说,形成对它有什么好处,爆裂对它又有什么坏处呢?同样的也适用 于一道闪电。

Turn it (the body) inside out, and see what kind of thing it is; and when it has grown old, what kind of thing it becomes, and when it is diseased.

深入地审视身体,看看它是一种什么性质的事物,当它变老时,它变成什么样的事物,当它 生病时,它又变成什么样的事物。

Short-lived are both the praiser and the praised, and the rememberer and the remembered: and all this in a nook of this part of the world; and not even here do all agree, no, not any one with himself: and the whole earth too is a point.

赞颂者和被赞颂者,记忆者和被记忆者的生命都是短暂的;所有这些活动都发生在这世界的 一部分的一个小角落里,甚至在此也不是所有人都意见一致,不,不是任何人都和他自己在 一起的。整个地球也只是一个点。

Attend to the matter which is before thee, whether it is an opinion or an act or a word.

注意你面前的东西,看它是一个意见还是一个行为或者一句话语。

Thou sufferest this justly: for thou choosest rather to become good to-morrow than to be good to-day.

你正直地忍受这一事,因为它宁愿它明天变成好事而不是今天就是好事。

Am I doing anything? I do it with reference to the good of mankind. Does anything happen to me? I receive it and refer it to the gods, and the source of all things, from which all that happens is derived.

我在做什么事情呢?我做有关人类善的事情。有什么事对我发生吗?我接受它,把它归于神 灵-所有事物的根源,所有发生的事物都是从它们那儿获得的。

Such as bathing appears to thee- oil, sweat, dirt, filthy water, all things disgusting- so is every part of life and everything.

当洗澡时你看到这样的东西-油腻、汗垢、肮脏、污秽的水,所有的东西都发出令人作呕的 气味-生命的每一部分和一切事物都是如此。

Lucilla saw Verus die, and then Lucilla died. Secunda saw Maximus die, and then Secunda died. Epitynchanus saw Diotimus die, and Epitynchanus died. Antoninus saw Faustina die, and then Antoninus died. Such is everything. Celer saw Hadrian die, and then Celer died. And those sharp-witted men, either seers or men inflated with pride, where are they? For instance the sharp-witted men, Charax and Demetrius the Platonist and Eudaemon, and any one else like them. All ephemeral, dead long ago. Some indeed have not been remembered even for a short time, and others have become the heroes of fables, and again others have disappeared even from fables. Remember this then, that this little compound, thyself, must either be dissolved, or thy poor breath must be extinguished, or be removed and placed elsewhere.

柳西那看见维勒斯死了,然后柳西那死了;西孔德看见马克西默斯死了,然后西孔德死了; 埃皮梯恩查努斯看见戴奥梯莫斯死了,然后埃皮梯恩查怒斯死了;安东尼看见福斯蒂娜死了, 然后安东尼死了。这就是一切。塞勒尔看见赫德里安死了,然后塞勒尔死了。那些机智颖悟 的人,或者预言家或者趾高气扬的人,他们现在到哪里去了呢?比方说这些机敏的人:查拉 克斯、柏拉图主义者、迪米特里厄斯,还有尤德蒙及别的类似于他们的人。所有 的人都是朝生幕死,早已辞世。有一些人的确甚至被人马上忘记,还有一些人变成了传说中 的英雄,再一些人甚至从传说中也消失了。那么记住这一点:你,这一小小的混合物,也必 定要或者是争解,或者是停止呼吸,或者被移到其他地方。

It is satisfaction to a man to do the proper works of a man. Now it is a proper work of a man to be benevolent to his own kind, to despise the movements of the senses, to form a just judgement of plausible appearances, and to take a survey of the nature of the universe and of the things which happen in it.

一个人做适合于一个人做的工作对他就是满足。那么适合于一个人做的工作就是:仁爱地对 待他的同类,轻视感官的活动,对似可信的现象形成一种正当的判断,对宇宙的本性和发生 于它之中的事物做一概观。

There are three relations between thee and other things: the one to the body which surrounds thee; the second to the divine cause from which all things come to all; and the third to those who live with thee.

在你和别的事物之间有三种联系:一种是与环绕你的物体的联系;一种是与所有事物所由产 生的神圣原因的联系;一种是与那些和你生活在一起的人的联系。

Pain is either an evil to the body- then let the body say what it thinks of it- or to the soul; but it is in the power of the soul to maintain its own serenity and tranquility, and not to think that pain is an evil. For every judgement and movement and desire and aversion is within, and no evil ascends so high.

痛苦或者对身体是一个恶(那就让身体表示它的想法吧),或者对灵魂是一个恶;但是,灵 魂坚持它自己的安宁和平静,不把痛苦想做作一种恶,这是在它自己的力量范围之内。因为 每一判断、活动、欲望和厌恶都是发生在内心,而任何恶都不能上升得如此高。

Wipe out thy imaginations by often saying to thyself: now it is in my power to let no badness be in this soul, nor desire nor any perturbation at all; but looking at all things I see what is their nature, and I use each according to its value.- Remember this power which thou hast from nature.

通过常常这样对自己说而清除你的幻觉:不让任何恶、任何欲望或纷扰进入我的灵魂,现在 这是在我的力量范围之内,而通过观察所有事情我看见了它们的本性是什么,我运用每一事 物都是根据其价值。-牢记这一来自你的本性的力量。

Speak both in the senate and to every man, whoever he may be, appropriately, not with any affectation: use plain discourse.

不仅在元老院中,而且对任何一个人都要恰当地说话,不矫揉造作,言词简明扼要。

Augustus' court, wife, daughter, descendants, ancestors, sister, Agrippa, kinsmen, intimates, friends, Areius, Maecenas, physicians and sacrificing priests- the whole court is dead. Then turn to the rest, not considering the death of a single man, but of a whole race, as of the Pompeii; and that which is inscribed on the tombs- The last of his race. Then consider what trouble those before them have had that they might leave a successor; and then, that of necessity some one must be the last. Again here consider the death of a whole race.

奥古斯都的宫廷、妻子、女儿、后代、祖先、姐妹、厄格里珀、亲属、心腹、朋友、阿雷夫 斯、米西纳斯、医生和祭司,整个宫廷里的人都死去了。然后再看其他的,不是考虑一个单 独的人的死,而是整个家族的死,像庞培的家族,那是铭刻在坟墓上的-他的家族的最后一 个。然后考虑那些在他们之前的人对他们可能撇下的后代的苦恼,然后必然有某个人成为最 后一个。在此再考虑一整个家族的死。

It is thy duty to order thy life well in every single act; and if every act does its duty, as far as is possible, be content; and no one is able to hinder thee so that each act shall not do its duty.- But something external will stand in the way.- Nothing will stand in the way of thy acting justly and soberly and considerately.- But perhaps some other active power will be hindered.- Well, but by acquiescing in the hindrance and by being content to transfer thy efforts to that which is allowed, another opportunity of action is immediately put before thee in place of that which was hindered, and one which will adapt itself to this ordering of which we are speaking.

在每一活动中都好好地使你的生活井然有序是你的义务,如果每一活动都尽其可能地履地这 一义务,那么就满足吧,无人能够阻止你,使你的每一活动不履行其义务。-但某一外部的 事物可能挡路。-没有什么能阻挡那正当、清醒和慎重的活动。-但也许某一别的积极力量 将受阻碍。-好,但通过默认阻碍和通过满足于把你的努力转到那被允许的事情上去,另一 个行动机会又会代替那受阻的活动而直接摆到你面前,它也是一个适应于我们刚才说的那一 秩序的行动机会。

Receive wealth or prosperity without arrogance; and be ready to let it go.

毫不炫耀地接受财富和繁荣,同时又随时准备放弃。

If thou didst ever see a hand cut off, or a foot, or a head, lying anywhere apart from the rest of the body, such does a man make himself, as far as he can, who is not content with what happens, and separates himself from others, or does anything unsocial. Suppose that thou hast detached thyself from the natural unity- for thou wast made by nature a part, but now thou hast cut thyself off- yet here there is this beautiful provision, that it is in thy power again to unite thyself. God has allowed this to no other part, after it has been separated and cut asunder, to come together again. But consider the kindness by which he has distinguished man, for he has put it in his power not to be separated at all from the universal; and when he has been separated, he has allowed him to return and to be united and to resume his place as a part.

如果你曾见过一只手被切断,或一只脚、一个头,如果你看见离开了身体的其他部分躺在那 儿,那么,那不满于发生的事的人就是这样就其所能地使自己变成这样,使自己脱离他人, 或做出反社会的事情来。假设你已使自己从这一自然的统一离开-因为你天生就被造成为它 的一个部分,而现在却切断了与它的联系-在此却还是有一好的办法,即再统一起来还在你 的力量范围之内。神没有把这一能力,即在自身被分离和切开以后,又重新统一到一起的能 力,许给其他动物。但考虑一下神弘扬人的善意,他把这放到人的力量范围之内:即不会完 全同宇宙分开;而当他被他离时,神允许他回来,重新统一,占据他作为一个部分的地位。

As the nature of the universal has given to every rational being all the other powers that it has, so we have received from it this power also. For as the universal nature converts and fixes in its predestined place everything which stands in the way and opposes it, and makes such things a part of itself, so also the rational animal is able to make every hindrance its own material, and to use it for such purposes as it may have designed.

由于宇宙的本性给了每一理性存在以它拥有的所有别的力量,所以我们也从此得到了这一力 量。因为正像宇宙本性在其预定的地方转变和安排一切阻碍和反对它的事物,使这类事物成 为它自身的一部分一样,理性动物也能使每一障碍成为他自己的质料,利用它达到他可能已 设计好的目的。

Do not disturb thyself by thinking of the whole of thy life. Let not thy thoughts at once embrace all the various troubles which thou mayest expect to befall thee: but on every occasion ask thyself, What is there in this which is intolerable and past bearing? For thou wilt be ashamed to confess. In the next place remember that neither the future nor the past pains thee, but only the present. But this is reduced to a very little, if thou only circumscribest it, and chidest thy mind, if it is unable to hold out against even this.

不要通过想你的整个一生来打扰你。不要让你的思想涉及那你可能预期将落于你的所有苦 恼,而是在每个场合都问自己,在这种场合里究竟有什么不可忍受的东西和不能过去的东 西?因为你将会羞于承认。其次记住将来或过去都不会使你痛苦,而只有现在会使你痛苦。 而如果你只是限制它,这种痛苦将缩小到一点点;如果甚至连这也不能抵住,那就叱责你的 心灵吧。

Does Panthea or Pergamus now sit by the tomb of Verus? Does Chaurias or Diotimus sit by the tomb of Hadrian? That would be ridiculous. Well, suppose they did sit there, would the dead be conscious of it? And if the dead were conscious, would they be pleased? And if they were pleased, would that make them immortal? Was it not in the order of destiny that these persons too should -77- first become old women and old men and then die? What then would those do after these were dead? All this is foul smell and blood in a bag.

潘瑟或帕加穆斯现在还坐在维勒斯的陵墓之侧吗?乔内阿斯或戴奥梯莫斯现在还坐在赫德 里它的陵墓之侧吗?那将是荒唐的。好,假如他们还坐在那儿,死者又能意识到吗?如果死 者意识到,他们会感到高兴吗?如果他们感到高兴,那又能使他们永远不死吗?这些人也要 先变成老翁老妪然后死去,这不是命运的秩序么?那么这些死者之后的人做什么呢?所有的 人都要走上这一条道路。

If thou canst see sharp, look and judge wisely, says the philosopher.

哲学家说,如果你能敏锐地观察,就能明智地调查和判断。

In the constitution of the rational animal I see no virtue which is opposed to justice; but I see a virtue which is opposed to love of pleasure, and that is temperance.

在理性动物的结构中我看不到任何与正义相反的德性,而是看到一种与热爱快乐相反的德 性,那就是节制。

If thou takest away thy opinion about that which appears to give thee pain, thou thyself standest in perfect security.- Who is this self?- The reason.- But I am not reason.- Be it so. Let then the reason itself not trouble itself. But if any other part of thee suffers, let it have its own opinion about itself.

如果你驱除你的关于看来给你痛苦的事物的意见,你的自我将得到完全的保障。-那这一自 我是什么呢?-是理性。-但我并不是理性。-那就这样吧,让理性本身不要烦扰自己。但 如果你的其他部分受苦,就让它表示它对自己的意见吧。

Hindrance to the perceptions of sense is an evil to the animal nature. Hindrance to the movements (desires) is equally an evil to the animal nature. And something else also is equally an impediment and an evil to the constitution of plants. So then that which is a hindrance to the intelligence is an evil to the intelligent nature. Apply all these things then to thyself. Does pain or sensuous pleasure affect thee? The senses will look to that.- Has any obstacle opposed thee in thy efforts towards an object? if indeed thou wast making this effort absolutely (unconditionally, or without any reservation), certainly this obstacle is an evil to thee considered as a rational animal. But if thou takest into consideration the usual course of things, thou hast not yet been injured nor even impeded. The things however which are proper to the understanding no other man is used to impede, for neither fire, nor iron, nor tyrant, nor abuse, touches it in any way. When it has been made a sphere, it continues a sphere.

感觉障碍对动物本性是一种恶。运动(欲望)的障碍对动物本性同样是一种恶。某些别的东 西对植物的结构同样也是一种阻碍和一种恶。所以,理解力的障碍对理智的本性来说也是一 种恶。那么把所有这些道理用于你自身。痛苦或感官快乐影响你么?感官将要注意它。-在 你致力于一个目标时有什么东西阻碍你么?如果你的确在做出这种绝对的努力(无条件或无 保留的努力),那么肯定这一障碍对被考虑为是一个理性动物的你是一种恶。但如果你考虑 一下事物的通常过程,你还是没有被伤害甚或被阻碍。无论如何,对于理解力是适合的事物, 是任何他人都不能阻挠的,因为无论火、铁、暴君、辱骂都接触不到它。当它被造成为一个 球体,它就继续是一个球体。

It is not fit that I should give myself pain, for I have never intentionally given pain even to another.

说我给了自己痛苦是不合适的,因为我甚至对别人也没有有意造成痛苦。

Different things delight different people. But it is my delight to keep the ruling faculty sound without turning away either from any man or from any of the things which happen to men, but looking at and receiving all with welcome eyes and using everything according to its value.

不同的事物使不同的人欢乐,我的欢乐则是使支配能力健全同时又不脱离任何人或对人们发 生的任何事情,而只是以欢迎的眼光看待和接受一切,根据其价值运用每一事物。

See that thou secure this present time to thyself: for those who rather pursue posthumous fame do consider that the men of after time will be exactly such as these whom they cannot bear now; and both are mortal. And what is it in any way to thee if these men of after time utter this or that sound, or have this or that opinion about thee?

注意你要对自己保证这一现在的时刻,因为那些宁愿追求死后名声的人没有想到:后来的人 们将跟那些现在他们不记得了的人一样,两者都是有死的。那么以后这些人对你是否说这种 或那种话,对你有这种或那种意见,于你又有什么关系呢?

Take me and cast me where thou wilt; for there I shall keep my divine part tranquil, that is, content, if it can feel and act conformably to its proper constitution. Is this change of place sufficient reason why my soul should be unhappy and worse than it was, depressed, expanded, shrinking, affrighted? And what wilt thou find which is sufficient reason for this?

带我去你将要去的地方吧,因为在那儿我将使我心中神圣的部分保持宁静,换言之,如果它 能按照它恰当的结构感觉和行动,它将是满足的。我的灵魂为什么要变得比过去不幸、恶劣、 沮丧、自大、畏缩和恐惧呢?这种变化难道有什么充足的理由吗?你能为它找到这种充足的 理由吗?

Nothing can happen to any man which is not a human accident, nor to an ox which is not according to the nature of an ox, nor to a vine which is not according to the nature of a vine, nor to a stone which is not proper to a stone. If then there happens to each thing both what is usual and natural, why shouldst thou complain? For the common nature brings nothing which may not be borne by thee.

你没有什么不属人的事情能够从人发生;没有什么不合符一头公牛本性的事情从一头公牛发 生;没有什么不合符一棵葡萄树本性的事情从一棵葡萄树发生;没有什么不适合于一块石头 的事情从一块石头发生。那么如果从每一事物发生的事情都是平常和自然的,你为什么要抱 怨呢?因为共同的本性带来的事情,没有不是由你所生的。

If thou art pained by any external thing, it is not this thing that disturbs thee, but thy own judgement about it. And it is in thy power to wipe out this judgement now. But if anything in thy own disposition gives thee pain, who hinders thee from correcting thy opinion? And even if thou art pained because thou art not doing some particular thing which seems to thee to be right, why dost thou not rather act than complain?- But some insuperable obstacle is in the way?- Do not be grieved then, for the cause of its not being done depends not on thee.- But it is not worth while to live if this cannot be done.- Take thy departure then from life contentedly, just as he dies who is in full activity, and well pleased too with the things which are obstacles.

如果你因什么外在的事物而感到痛苦,打扰你的不是这一事物,而是你自己对它的判断。而 现在清除这一判断是在你的力量范围之内。但如果在你自己的意向里有什么东西给你痛苦, 那么谁阻止你改正你的意见呢?即使你是因为没有做某件光觉得是正当的事情而感到痛苦, 你为什么不宁可去做这件事而不要抱怨呢?-但有一个不可逾越的障碍横亘在前吗?-那 么不要为此悲哀,因为不做这件事的原因是不以你为转移的。-但如果不能做到这件事的话, 活着就是无价值的呢?-那么就满意地放弃你的生命吧,正像那充分活动过的人死去一样, 也对作为障碍的事物感到欢喜。

Remember that the ruling faculty is invincible, when self-collected it is satisfied with itself, if it does nothing which it does not choose to do, even if it resist from mere obstinacy. What then will it be when it forms a judgement about anything aided by reason and deliberately? Therefore the mind which is free from passions is a citadel, for man has nothing more secure to which he can fly for, refuge and for the future be inexpugnable. He then who has not seen this is an ignorant man; but he who has seen it and does not fly to this refuge is unhappy.

记住:你的支配部分是不可征服的,如果它不做任何非它所愿的事情,即使它是出于纯粹的 顽而进行抵制的,那么当它自我镇定时,它也是满足于自身的。但是,如果它通过理性和审 慎的援助形成对事物的一种判断时,它又将怎样呢?所以,那摆脱了激情的心灵就是一座堡 垒,因为人再没有什么比这更安全的。而不知道这一点的人就是一个无知的人,知道这一点 却不飞向这一庇护所的人则是不幸的人。 Say nothing more to thyself than what the first appearances report. Suppose that it has been reported to thee that a certain person speaks ill of thee. This has been reported; but that thou hast been injured, that has not been reported. I see that my child is sick. I do see; but that he is in danger, I do not see. Thus then always abide by the first appearances, and add nothing thyself from within, and then nothing happens to thee. Or rather add something, like a man who knows everything that happens in the world. 除了最初的现象所报告的,不要再对自己说什么,假设有人报告你说某个人说你的坏话,这 个消息被报告了,但你并没有受到损害,并没有你受到损害的报告。我看到我的孩子生病了, 我看到了,但我并没有看到他是在危险之中。如此始终听从最初的现象,不从内心对你增加 任何东西,那么就没有什么对你发生了。或宁可像一个知道世界上发生的一切事情的人一样 增加某种东西。

A cucumber is bitter.- Throw it away.- There are briars in the road.- Turn aside from them.- This is enough. Do not add, And why were such things made in the world? For thou wilt be ridiculed by a man who is acquainted with nature, as thou wouldst be ridiculed by a carpenter and shoemaker if thou didst find fault because thou seest in their workshop shavings and cuttings from the things which they make. And yet they have places into which they can throw these shavings and cuttings, and the universal nature has no external space; but the wondrous part of her art is that though she has circumscribed herself, everything within her which appears to decay and to grow old and to be useless she changes into herself, and again makes other new things from these very same, so that she requires neither substance from without nor wants a place into which she may cast that which decays. She is content then with her own space, and her own matter and her own art.

这只黄瓜是苦的。-那就扔掉它。-道路上有荆棘。-那就避开它。这就够了。不要再增加 什么,问为什么这世界上有这种东西啊?因为你将被一个熟悉自然的人嘲笑,正确像如果你在木匠和鞋匠的铺子里因发现刨花和碎料而挑剔他们时遭到他们嘲笑一样。但他们还是有 投放这些刨花和碎料的地方,而宇宙的本性却没有这外部的空地,但她的艺术中最奇妙的部 分就在于虽然她限定了自身,从这些东西中重新创造出新的同样东西,以致她不需要任何从 外面来的实体,也不需要一个她可以投放腐烂东西的地方。怕以她是满足于她自己的空间、 她自己的质料和她自己的艺术的。

Neither in thy actions be sluggish nor in thy conversation without method, nor wandering in thy thoughts, nor let there be in thy soul inward contention nor external effusion, nor in life be so busy as to have no leisure.

你的行动不要迟缓呆滞,你的谈话不要缺乏条理,你的思想不要漫无秩序,不要让你的灵魂 产生内部的争纭和向外的迸发,也不要在生活中如此忙碌以致没有闲暇。

Suppose that men kill thee, cut thee in pieces, curse thee. What then can these things do to prevent thy mind from remaining pure, wise, sober, just? For instance, if a man should stand by a limpid pure spring, and curse it, the spring never ceases sending up potable water; and if he should cast clay into it or filth, it will speedily disperse them and wash them out, and will not be at all polluted. How then shalt thou possess a perpetual fountain and not a mere well? By forming thyself hourly to freedom conjoined with contentment, simplicity and modesty.

假设人们杀死你,把你切为碎片,诅咒你。那么这些事情怎么能阻止你的心灵保持纯净、明 智、清醒和公正呢?例如,如果一个人站在一泓清澈纯净的泉边诅咒它,这清泉决不会停止 冒出可饮用的泉水,如果这个人竟然把泥土或垃圾投入其中,清泉也将迅速地冲散它们,洗 涤它们,而不会遭到污染。那么作为拥有一种永恒的泉水而不仅仅是一口井的你将怎样呢? 要每时每刻地塑造你自己,达到与满足、朴素和谦虚结为一体的自由。

He who does not know what the world is, does not know where he is. And he who does not know for what purpose the world exists, does not know who he is, nor what the world is. But he who has failed in any one of these things could not even say for what purpose he exists himself. What then dost thou think of him who avoids or seeks the praise of those who applaud, of men who know not either where they are or who they are?

那不知道世界是什么的人,也不知道他自己在哪里。那不知道世界为什么目的存在的人,也 不知道他自己是谁,不知道世界是什么。而对这些事一无所知的人甚至不能说他自己是为什 么目的而存在的。那么你怎样想那避免或寻求喝彩和称赞的人呢,怎样想那此不知道他们在 哪里或他们是谁的人们呢?

Dost thou wish to be praised by a man who curses himself thrice every hour? Wouldst thou wish to please a man who does not please himself? Does a man please himself who repents of nearly everything that he does?

你希望得到一个每小时谴责他自己三次的人的赞扬吗?你希望取悦于一个对自己也感到不 悦的人吗?一个后悔他做过的几乎一切事情的人会对自己感到欣悦吗?

No longer let thy breathing only act in concert with the air which surrounds thee, but let thy intelligence also now be in harmony with the intelligence which embraces all things. For the intelligent power is no less diffused in all parts and pervades all things for him who is willing to draw it to him than the aerial power for him who is able to respire it.

不要再仅仅让你的呼吸和围绕着你的空气和谐一致,现在还要让你的理智也和那包括所有事 物的理智和谐一致。因为理智力对于愿意利用它的人来说,就跟大气对于能够呼吸它的人一 样,也是分布于所有部分和浸淫于所有事物的。

Generally, wickedness does no harm at all to the universe; and particularly, the wickedness of one man does no harm to another. It is only harmful to him who has it in his power to be released from it, as soon as he shall choose.

一般来说,恶全然不损害到宇宙,特别是,一个人的恶并不损害到另一个人。它仅仅损害这 样的人-即只要他愿意,就可以拥有摆脱恶的力量的人。

To my own free will the free will of my neighbour is just as indifferent as his poor breath and flesh. For though we are made especially for the sake of one another, still the ruling power of each of us has its own office, for otherwise my neighbour's wickedness would be my harm, which God has not willed in order that my unhappiness may not depend on another.

我的邻人的自由意志对于我自己的自由意志来说,正像他可悦的呼吸和肉体一样于我是漠不 相关的。因为虽然我们是被专门造出来互相合作的,我们每个人的支配力还是有着自己的活 动空间,因为否则的话我的邻人的恶就会损害到我了,而神并没有如此意欲以致我们的不幸 也可以互相影响。

The sun appears to be poured down, and in all directions indeed it is diffused, yet it is not effused. For this diffusion is extension: Accordingly its rays are called Extensions [aktines] because they are extended [apo tou ekteinesthai]. But one may judge what kind of a thing a ray is, if he looks at the sun's light passing through a narrow opening into a darkened room, for it is extended in a right line, and as it were is divided when it meets with any solid body which stands in the way and intercepts the air beyond; but there the light remains fixed and does not glide or fall off. Such then ought to be the out-pouring and diffusion of the understanding, and it should in no way be an effusion, but an extension, and it should make no violent or impetuous collision with the obstacles which are in its way; nor yet fall down, but be fixed and enlighten that which receives it. For a body will deprive itself of the illumination, if it does not admit it.

阳光看来在照射下来,它的确是分布到所有方向,但它并不是流溢。因为这种分布是扩展: 因为它的光线就叫做扩展,因为它们是被扩展的。如果一个人注意阳光通过一个狭口进入一 个黑暗的房间,他就可以判断出一条光线是一种什么事物,因为它笔直地伸展,当它遇到任 何挡住它去路和切断空气的固体时,它可以说是被隔开了,但是光仍然在那里保持着稳定, 并不滑动或缩小。那么理解力也应当如此照射和分布,它不应当是一种流溢,而是一种扩展, 它不应对挡住它去路的障碍做任何激烈的冲撞,同时也不畏缩,而是稳定地照亮那接受它的 东西。因为一个物体不接受它的话,它就得不到光亮。

He who fears death either fears the loss of sensation or a different kind of sensation. But if thou shalt have no sensation, neither wilt thou feel any harm; and if thou shalt acquire another kind of sensation, thou wilt be a different kind of living being and thou wilt not cease to live.

害怕死亡的人或者是害怕感觉的丧失,或者是害怕一种不同的感觉。但如果你将没有感觉, 你也将感觉不到损害;如果你将获得另一种感觉,你将是一种不同的生物,将不停止生命。

Men exist for the sake of one another. Teach them then or bear with them.

人们是彼此为了对方而存在的,那么教导他们,容忍他们。

In one way an arrow moves, in another way the mind. The mind indeed, both when it exercises caution and when it is employed about inquiry, moves straight onward not the less, and to its object.

一枝箭以这种方式运动,心灵以另一种方式运动。的确,当心灵谨慎地活动或致力于探究时, 它以一条直线向其目标运动。

Enter into every man's ruling faculty; and also let every other man enter into thine.

洞察每个人的支配能力;也让所有其他的人洞察你的支配能力。