中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 9

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HE WHO acts unjustly acts impiously. For since the universal nature has made rational animals for the sake of one another to help one another according to their deserts, but in no way to injure one another, he who transgresses her will, is clearly guilty of impiety towards the highest divinity. And he too who lies is guilty of impiety to the same divinity; for the universal nature is the nature of things that are; and things that are have a relation to all things that come into existence. And further, this universal nature is named truth, and is the prime cause of all things that are true. He then who lies intentionally is guilty of impiety inasmuch as he acts unjustly by deceiving; and he also who lies unintentionally, inasmuch as he is at variance with the universal nature, and inasmuch as he disturbs the order by fighting against the nature of the world; for he fights against it, who is moved of himself to that which is contrary to truth, for he had received powers from nature through the neglect of which he is not able now to distinguish falsehood from truth. And indeed he who pursues pleasure as good, and avoids pain as evil, is guilty of impiety. For of necessity such a man must often find fault with the universal nature, alleging that it assigns things to the bad and the good contrary to their deserts, because frequently the bad are in the enjoyment of pleasure and possess the things which procure pleasure, but the good have pain for their share and the things which cause pain. And further, he who is afraid of pain will sometimes also be afraid of some of the things which will happen in the world, and even this is impiety. And he who pursues pleasure will not abstain from injustice, and this is plainly impiety. Now with respect to the things towards which the universal nature is equally affected- for it would not have made both, unless it was equally affected towards both- towards these they who wish to follow nature should be of the same mind with it, and equally affected. With respect to pain, then, and pleasure, or death and life, or honour and dishonour, which the universal nature employs equally, whoever is not equally affected is manifestly acting impiously. And I say that the universal nature employs them equally, instead of saying that they happen alike to those who are produced in continuous series and to those who come after them by virtue of a certain original movement of Providence, according to which it moved from a certain beginning to this ordering of things, having conceived certain principles of the things which were to be, and having determined powers productive of beings and of changes and of such like successions.

那不正当地行动的人也是在不虔诚地行动。因为既然宇宙本性为相互合作的目的造就了理性 动物,要他们根据他们的应分彼此帮助,而不要相互损害,那么违反他意志的人,就显然对 最高的神意犯有不敬之罪。那说谎的人也对同样的神意犯有不敬之罪,因为宇宙本性就是那 -83- 存在的各种事物的本性,那存在的各种事物与所有进入存在的事物都有一种联系。此外,这 一宇宙本性是名为真理的,是所有真实事物的主要原因。这样,那有意说谎的人就因为他说 谎的不正当行为而犯有不敬之罪,那不自觉说谎的人就因为他与宇宙本性的矛盾,因为他通 过反对世界本性而扰乱了秩序而犯有不敬之罪,由于他反对世界本性,他就把自己推到与真 理对立的地位,由于他是通过这种无知而从自然中接受力量,他现在就不能辨别真伪。的确, 那把快乐作为善追求,把痛苦作为恶避免的人亦是犯了不敬之罪。因为这样的人必然经常对 宇宙本性不满,声称宇宙本性没有按照善人和恶人的应分分配给他们东西,因为恶人常常享 受快乐,拥有产生快乐的事物,而善人却有痛苦作为他们的份额,拥有那引起痛苦的事物。 此外,那害怕痛苦的人有时也将害怕那发生在世界上的某些事情,而这种害怕甚至也是一种 不敬。追求快乐的人将不会戒除不义,而这显然也是不敬。至于那些宇宙本性同等地感受的 事物-因为除非它是同等地感受这两种事物,否则就不会创造它们了-对于这些事物,那些 愿意遵循本性的人将与之同心,也同等地地感受这两种事物。那么,由于苦乐、生死和荣辱 都是宇宙本性同等利用的事物,无论谁不同等地感受它们就显然是不虔诚了。我是说宇宙本 性同等地利用它们,而不是说它们同样地发生于那些在连续的系列中产生的人和那些在他们 之后通过神意的某种原初运动而产生的人,这一运动按照神意从某一开端向这一事物系列运 动,孕育着某些将要存在的事物原则,决定着产生存在、变化和这样一种连续系列的力量。

It would be a man's happiest lot to depart from mankind without having had any taste of lying and hypocrisy and luxury and pride. However to breathe out one's life when a man has had enough of these things is the next best voyage, as the saying is. Hast thou determined to abide with vice, and has not experience yet induced thee to fly from this pestilence? For the destruction of the understanding is a pestilence, much more indeed than any such corruption and change of this atmosphere which surrounds us. For this corruption is a pestilence of animals so far as they are animals; but the other is a pestilence of men so far as they are men.

辞别人世而从未有过说谎、虚伪、奢侈和骄傲的嗜好,是一个人最幸福的命运。然而如俗话 所说,当一个人拥有足够的这些事情时,立即结束自己的生命则是仅次于最好的一次旅行。 而你决定顺从恶吗,还没有引导自己从这种瘟疫逃开的经验吗?因为理智力的毁灭就是一场 瘟疫,比围绕着我们的大气的任何腐败和变化都更是一种瘟疫。因为那种腐败就它们是动物 而言是动物的瘟疫;而这另一腐败就他们是人而言是人的瘟疫。

Do not despise death, but be well content with it, since this too is one of those things which nature wills. For such as it is to be young and to grow old, and to increase and to reach maturity, and to have teeth and beard and grey hairs, and to beget, and to be pregnant and to bring forth, and all the other natural operations which the seasons of thy life bring, such also is dissolution. This, then, is consistent with the character of a reflecting man, to be neither careless nor impatient nor contemptuous with respect to death, but to wait for it as one of the operations of nature. As thou now waitest for the time when the child shall come out of thy wife's womb, so be ready for the time when thy soul shall fall out of this envelope. But if thou requirest also a vulgar kind of comfort which shall reach thy heart, thou wilt be made best reconciled to death by observing the objects from which thou art going to be removed, and the morals of those with whom thy soul will no longer be mingled. For it is no way right to be offended with men, but it is thy duty to care for them and to bear with them gently; and yet to remember that thy departure will be not from men who have the same principles as thyself. For this is the only thing, if there be any, which could draw us the contrary way and attach us to life, to be permitted to live with those who have the same principles as ourselves. But now thou seest how great is the trouble arising from the discordance of those who live together, so that thou mayest say, Come quick, O death, lest perchance I, too, should forget myself.

不要蔑视死亡,而是正常地表示满意,因为这也是自然所欲的一件事情。因为像年青,变老, 接近和达到成熟,长牙齿,长胡子和白发,怀孕、生子和抚养,以及所有别的你生命的季节 所带来的自然活动都是这样的事物,分解消亡也不例外。那么,这就是和一个反思的人一致 的:即不要轻率或不耐烦地对待或蔑视死亡,而是要把它作为自然的一个活动静候它。就像 你现在等待着孩子从你妻子的子宫里娩出一样,也准备着你的灵魂脱出这一皮囊的时刻来 临。但如果你也要求一种将接触到你心灵的通俗的安慰,那么通过观察你将要与之分手的物 体,观察你的灵魂将不再与之同在的那些人的道德,你将变得最顺从死亡。因为,因人们的 过错而发怒决不是正确的,关心他们、静静地忍受他们才是你的义务;但也要记住你并不是 要从跟你持有同样原则的人们那里离去。因为如果有什么使我们转念的事情的话,这是惟一 能使我欠转而依恋生命的事情:那就是允许我们跟那些持有和我们同样原则的人一起生活。 而现在你看到:从那些生活在一起的人们的不和中产生的苦恼是多么大啊,以致你可以说: 快来吧,死记,妈免我或许也可能迷失自己。

He who does wrong does wrong against himself. He who acts unjustly acts unjustly to himself, because he makes himself bad.

那作恶者也是对自己行恶。那做不义之事的人也是对自己行不久,因为他使自己变坏。

He often acts unjustly who does not do a certain thing; not only he who does a certain thing.

不仅做某种事的人常常是不正当地行动,而且不做某种事的人也常常是在不正当地行动。

Thy present opinion founded on understanding, and thy present conduct directed to social good, and thy present disposition of contentment with everything which happens- that is enough.

你使自己现在的意见以理解为基础,使你现在的行为指向社会利益;使你现在的性情满足于 一切发生的事情-这就足够了。

Wipe out imagination: check desire: extinguish appetite: keep the ruling faculty in its own power.

驱散想像,克制欲望,消除嗜好,把支配能力保持在它自己的力量范围之内。

Among the animals which have not reason one life is distributed; but among reasonable animals one intelligent soul is distributed: just as there is one earth of all things which are of an earthy nature, and we see by one light, and breathe one air, all of us that have the faculty of vision and all that have life.

一种生命是分布在没有理性的动物之中的,而一种理性的灵魂是分布在理性动物之中的,正 像有一个其中所有事物都是土性的大地一样,我们借助同一种光观看,呼吸同一种空气,我 们每个人都有视力,每个人都有生命。

All things which participate in anything which is common to them all move towards that which is of the same kind with themselves. Everything which is earthy turns towards the earth, everything which is liquid flows together, and everything which is of an aerial kind does the same, so that they require something to keep them asunder, and the application of force. Fire indeed moves upwards on account of the elemental fire, but it is so ready to be kindled together with all the fire -85- which is here, that even every substance which is somewhat dry, is easily ignited, because there is less mingled with it of that which is a hindrance to ignition. Accordingly then everything also which participates in the common intelligent nature moves in like manner towards that which is of the same kind with itself, or moves even more. For so much as it is superior in comparison with all other things, in the same degree also is it more ready to mingle with and to be fused with that which is akin to it. Accordingly among animals devoid of reason we find swarms of bees, and herds of cattle, and the nurture of young birds, and in a manner, loves; for even in animals there are souls, and that power which brings them together is seen to exert itself in the superior degree, and in such a way as never has been observed in plants nor in stones nor in trees. But in rational animals there are political communities and friendships, and families and meetings of people; and in wars, treaties and armistices. But in the things which are still superior, even though they are separated from one another, unity in a manner exists, as in the stars. Thus the ascent to the higher degree is able to produce a sympathy even in things which are separated. See, then, what now takes place. For only intelligent animals have now forgotten this mutual desire and inclination, and in them alone the property of flowing together is not seen. But still though men strive to avoid this union, they are caught and held by it, for their nature is too strong for them; and thou wilt see what I say, if thou only observest. Sooner, then, will one find anything earthy which comes in contact with no earthy thing than a man altogether separated from other men.

所有分享一种共同东西的事物都倾向于它们同类的事物,所以土性的事物都倾向于大地,液 体的事物都倾向于一起流动,气体的事物也是如此,以致它们要求某种力量把它们分开。火 的炎上的确是由于元素的炎,但它是如此准备和所有在此的火一起燃,烧,以致想燃着一切 稍许干燥、容易着炎的物体,因为这些物体含有较少的阻止燃烧的东西。所以相应地,每一 分享共同理性的存在也以同样的方式倾向于与它同类的存在,甚至倾向性更强。因为它与所 有别的事物比较起来优越得多,它也同样多地更愿意与和它同类的东西结合或融合。所以, 我们在缺乏理性的动物中发现蜂群、畜群、对雏鸟的抚养、某种意义上的爱;因为甚至在动 物中亦有灵魂,那种把它们带到一起的力量看来是在较优越的程度上的活动的,在植物、石 块、树林中却没有看到过这样一种现象。而在理性动物中,则有政治团体和友谊、家庭和公 众集会,以及战争、谈判和休战。但在更为优越的存在那里,即使它们相互分离,也还是以 某种方式统一着,星宿的情况就是这样。于是达到这更高程度的上升就能够甚至在分离的事 物中产生一种同情。那么看看现发生的事情吧。因为目前只有理性的动物忘记了这一相互的 欲望和爱好,只有在他们那里看不到一起行动的特性。但即使人们努力避免这一联合,他们 还是为了联合所吸引和制约,因为他们的社会本性是太强了,你只要观察一下,就知道我说 的是事实。那么,一个人将发现任何土性的事物与非土性的事物的结合要比一个人完全分离 于其他人来得更快。

Both man and God and the universe produce fruit; at the proper seasons each produces it. But if usage has especially fixed these terms to the vine and like things, this is nothing. Reason produces fruit both for all and for itself, and there are produced from it other things of the same kind as reason itself.

人、神和宇宙都生产果实,他们各自在适当的季节里生产它。但如果按惯常的用法把这些特 殊用法的词用于葡萄树或类似事物却毫无意义。理性为一切也为自己产生果实,从它,产生 出别的和理性本身同一性质的事物。

If thou art able, correct by teaching those who do wrong; but if thou canst not, remember that -86- indulgence is given to thee for this purpose. And the gods, too, are indulgent to such persons; and for some purposes they even help them to get health, wealth, reputation; so kind they are. And it is in thy power also; or say, who hinders thee?

如果你能够,通过劝告去纠正那些做错事的人,但如果你不能够,记住你要因此之故采取任 其自然的态度。神灵对这种人也是任其自然的,出于某些原因他们甚至帮助这些人得到财富、 健康、名声,他们是如此和善。这也是在你的力量范围之内,或者说,谁阻碍你这样做呢?

Labour not as one who is wretched, nor yet as one who would be pitied or admired: but direct thy will to one thing only, to put thyself in motion and to check thyself, as the social reason requires.

不要像一个被强迫者那样劳动,也不要像一个将受到怜悯或赞扬的人那样劳动,而要使你的 意志直指一件事情,即像社会理性所要求的使你活动和抑制自身。

To-day I have got out of all trouble, or rather I have cast out all trouble, for it was not outside, but within and in my opinions.

今天我摆脱了所有苦恼,或宁可说我逐出了所有苦恼,因为这不是发生在外部,而是发生在 内部,在我的意见中。

All things are the same, familiar in experience, and ephemeral in time, and worthless in the matter. Everything now is just as it was in the time of those whom we have buried.

所有事物都是同样的,都是经验所熟悉的,都是时间上短暂和质料上无价值的。现在的一切 事物正像它们在先死者的时代时里一样的。

Things stand outside of us, themselves by themselves, neither knowing aught of themselves, nor expressing any judgement. What is it, then, which does judge about them? The ruling faculty.

事物并列在我们外面,它们不知道它们自己,不表示任何判断。那么,判断它们的是什么呢? 是支配的能力。

Not in passivity, but in activity lie the evil and the good of the rational social animal, just as his virtue and his vice lie not in passivity, but in activity.

有理性的社会动物的善恶不是在消极的活动中,而是在积极的活动中,正像他的德行与恶行 不是在消极的活动中而是在积极的活动中一样。

For the stone which has been thrown up it is no evil to come down, nor indeed any good to have been carried up.

对于那被住上掷的石头来说,落下决非一种恶,而它被人携带也的确并非一种善。

Penetrate inwards into men's leading principles, and thou wilt see what judges thou art afraid of, and what kind of judges they are of themselves.

深入到人们的指导原则之中,你将看到你害怕什么判断,它们自身又是一种什么判断。

All things are changing: and thou thyself art in continuous mutation and in a manner in continuous destruction, and the whole universe too.

一切事物都在变化中,你自身也是在不断的变化中,在某种程度上是在不断的毁灭中,整个 宇宙也是如此。 -87- It is thy duty to leave another man's wrongful act there where it is. 让别人的恶劣行为留在原地而不影响你是你的义务。

Termination of activity, cessation from movement and opinion, and in a sense their death, is no evil. Turn thy thoughts now to the consideration of thy life, thy life as a child, as a youth, thy manhood, thy old age, for in these also every change was a death. Is this anything to fear? Turn thy thoughts now to thy life under thy grandfather, then to thy life under thy mother, then to thy life under thy father; and as thou findest many other differences and changes and terminations, ask thyself, Is this anything to fear? In like manner, then, neither are the termination and cessation and change of thy whole life a thing to be afraid of.

活动的停止、运动和意见的停止,它们在某种意义上的死亡,这些决不是恶。现在转而考虑 你的生命,你作为一个孩子、一个青年、一个成人和一个老人的生命,因为在这里面每一变 化也都是一种死。这是值得害怕的事情吗?现在转而考虑你在你的祖父体内的生命,然后是 你在你母亲体内的生命,你在你的父亲体内的生命,当你发现许多别的差别、变化和毁灭时, 问你自己,这事情值得害怕吗?那么,同样,你整个生命的熄灭、停止和改变也决不是一件 需要害怕的事情。

Hasten to examine thy own ruling faculty and that of the universe and that of thy neighbour: thy own that thou mayest make it just: and that of the universe, that thou mayest remember of what thou art a part; and that of thy neighbour, that thou mayest know whether he has acted ignorantly or with knowledge, and that thou mayest also consider that his ruling faculty is akin to thine.

抓紧时间去考察你自己的支配能力、宇宙的支配能力和你的邻人的支配能力。对于你自己的 支配能力,你可以使它正直;对于宇宙的支配能力,你可以记住你是它的一部分;对于邻人 的支配能力,你可以认识他是地知还是有知地行动,你也可以考虑他的支配能力是类似于你 的。

As thou thyself art a component part of a social system, so let every act of thine be a component part of social life. Whatever act of thine then has no reference either immediately or remotely to a social end, this tears asunder thy life, and does not allow it to be one, and it is of the nature of a mutiny, just as when in a popular assembly a man acting by himself stands apart from the general agreement.

由于你自己是一个社会体系的构成部分,你也要让你的每一行为都成为社会生活的一个构成 部分。那么,你的所有跟社会目的没有直接或间接关联的不论什么行为,就都会分裂你的生 命,打破它的统一,就都有一种叛逆的性质,正像在公共集会上,一个人脱离普遍的协议而 我行我素。

Quarrels of little children and their sports, and poor spirits carrying about dead bodies, such is everything; and so what is exhibited in the representation of the mansions of the dead strikes our eyes more clearly.

小孩子们的争吵,他们的运动,可怜的携带着死去的身体的精神,一切都是这样。所以,在 死者宅第的描绘中所展现的东西,更清楚地映入我们的眼帘。

Examine into the quality of the form of an object, and detach it altogether from its material part, -88- and then contemplate it; then determine the time, the longest which a thing of this peculiar form is naturally made to endure.

洞察一个对象的形式的性质,把它同它的质料部分完全分开,然后沉思它,然后判断时间, 即这一特殊形式的事物自然要持续的最长时间。

Thou hast endured infinite troubles through not being contented with thy ruling faculty, when it does the things which it is constituted by nature to do. But enough of this.

当你的支配能力做出它天生要做的事时,你由于对它不满意而忍受了无数的苦恼。但这已经 够了。

When another blames thee or hates thee, or when men say about thee anything injurious, approach their poor souls, penetrate within, and see what kind of men they are. Thou wilt discover that there is no reason to take any trouble that these men may have this or that opinion about thee. However thou must be well disposed towards them, for by nature they are friends. And the gods too aid them in all ways, by dreams, by signs, towards the attainment of those things on which they set a value.

当另一个人谴责你或仇恨你时,或者当人们谈论伤害你的事情时,去接近他们可怜的灵魂, 深入其中,看他们是什么性质的人。你将发现没有理由因这些人可能对你有这种或那种意见 而发生苦恼。无论如何你必须好好待他们,因为他们天生就是你的朋友。神灵在各方面能过 梦、通过征淦帮助他们达到那些他们所重视的事情。

The periodic movements of the universe are the same, up and down from age to age. And either the universal intelligence puts itself in motion for every separate effect, and if this is so, be thou content with that which is the result of its activity; or it puts itself in motion once, and everything else comes by way of sequence in a manner; or indivisible elements are the origin of all things.- In a word, if there is a god, all is well; and if chance rules, do not thou also be governed by it.

宇宙的周期运动是同样的,从一个时代到另一个时代往返不已。或者是宇宙的理智力自身运 动产生各种各样的效果,如果是这样,你要满足于它活动的结果;或者是它一旦推动,别的 一切事物就以一种连续的方式来到;再不就是不可分割的元素是所有事物的根源。-总之, 如果有一个神,就一切都好;如果是偶然性的统治,你也不要受它的支配。

Soon will the earth cover us all: then the earth, too, will change, and the things also which result from change will continue to change for ever, and these again for ever. For if a man reflects on the changes and transformations which follow one another like wave after wave and their rapidity, he will despise everything which is perishable.

大地不久就要掩埋我们所有的人,然后这大地也会变化,从变化中产生的事物将继续永远变 化,如此循环往复不已。因为如果一个人思考那像波浪一样一个接一个的变化和变形,思考 这种变化的迅速性,他将看不起这一切会衰朽的东西。

The universal cause is like a winter torrent: it carries everything along with it. But how worthless are all these poor people who are engaged in matters political, and, as they suppose, are playing the philosopher! All drivellers. Well then, man: do what nature now requires. Set thyself in motion, if it is in thy power, and do not look about thee to see if any one will observe it; nor yet expect Plato's Republic: but be content if the smallest thing goes on well, and consider such an event to be no small matter. For who can change men's opinions? And without a change of opinions what else is there than the slavery of men who groan while they pretend to obey? Come now and tell me of Alexander and Philip and Demetrius of Phalerum. They themselves shall judge whether they discovered what the common nature required, and trained themselves accordingly. But if they acted like tragedy heroes, no one has condemned me to imitate them. Simple and modest is the work of philosophy. Draw me not aside to indolence and pride.

宇宙的本原就像一道冬天的激流,它把所有东西都带着和它一起走。但是所有那些介入政治 事务却自以为在扮演哲学家角色的可怜的人们是多么无价值啊!还有所有的驱赶者。那么好, 人啊,做本性现在所要求的事吧。如果你有力量,就投入行动,不要环顾左右看是否有什么 人将注意它,也不要期望柏拉图的理想国。而只是满足于只要最小的事情进行得很好,考虑 这样一件事也决非小事。因为谁能改变人们的意见呢?不改变意见又怎么能摆脱那种在装作 服从时又发出呻吟的奴隶状态呢?现在来给我讲亚历山大、菲力浦和菲勒内姆的迪米特里厄 斯。他们自己将判断他们是否发现了共同本性所要求的事情,因而相应地训练自己。但如果 他们行动得像悲剧中英雄,那么就没有人能谴责我模仿他们。朴素和谦虚是哲学的工作。不 要使我偏离到懒惰和骄傲。

Look down from above on the countless herds of men and their countless solemnities, and the infinitely varied voyagings in storms and calms, and the differences among those who are born, who live together, and die. And consider, too, the life lived by others in olden time, and the life of those who will live after thee, and the life now lived among barbarous nations, and how many know not even thy name, and how many will soon forget it, and how they who perhaps now are praising thee will very soon blame thee, and that neither a posthumous name is of any value, nor reputation, nor anything else.

俯视那无数的人群,他们无数的庄严仪式,和无限变化的在风暴或宁静中的航行,俯视那些 诞生出来,一起生活,然后死去的人们中的种种差异。也考虑那些过去时代的人们的生命, 将在你之后生活的人们的生命,现正在野蛮民族中生活的人们的生命,有多少人甚至不知道 你的名字,有多少人将马上忘掉它,考虑那些现在也许在赞扬你的人很快又要谴责你,那么, 一种死后的声名就决无价值,名望亦是,其他亦是。

Let there be freedom from perturbations with respect to the things which come from the external cause; and let there be justice in the things done by virtue of the internal cause, that is, let there be movement and action terminating in this, in social acts, for this is according to thy nature.

让你在来自外部原因的事物的打扰中保持自由吧,让你在根据内在原因所做的事情中保持正 义吧,换言之,让你的行为和活动限定于有益社会的行为,因为这符合你的本性。

Thou canst remove out of the way many useless things among those which disturb thee, for they lie entirely in thy opinion; and thou wilt then gain for thyself ample space by comprehending the whole universe in thy mind, and by contemplating the eternity of time, and observing the rapid change of every several thing, how short is the time from birth to dissolution, and the illimitable time before birth as well as the equally boundless time after dissolution.

你能从那些烦扰你的事物中把许多无用的东西从这条路上清除出去,因为它们完全在于你的 意见,你将如此为自己得到广阔的空间:即通过在你心里思考整个的宇宙,思考永恒的时间, 观察每一事物的瞬息万变,观察从生到死的短暂以及在生之前和死之后的时间的无限深渊。

All that thou seest will quickly perish, and those who have been spectators of its dissolution will very soon perish too. And he who dies at the extremest old age will be brought into the same condition with him who died prematurely.

所有你看到的事物都将迅速地衰朽,那些目击其分解的人们不久也将逝去。活得最长的人将 被带到和早夭者同样的地方。

What are these men's leading principles, and about what kind of things are they busy, and for what kind of reasons do they love and honour? Imagine that thou seest their poor souls laid bare. When they think that they do harm by their blame or good by their praise, what an idea!

这些人的指导原则是什么,他们忙碌于何种性质的事情,他们因什么理由喜爱和尊重这些事 情?设想你看到了他们的赤裸中的可怜的灵魂。他们以为通过他们的谴责做出了损害或通过 他们的赞扬带来了利益时,这是一种多么奇怪的观念啊!

Loss is nothing else than change. But the universal nature delights in change, and in obedience to her all things are now done well, and from eternity have been done in like form, and will be such to time without end. What, then, dost thou say? That all things have been and all things always will be bad, and that no power has ever been found in so many gods to rectify these things, but the world has been condemned to be found in never ceasing evil?

损失只不过是变化。而宇宙的本性欢喜变化,通过服从于它,所有事物现在都进行得很好, 自古以来一直是以类似的方式进行,在无尽的未来也将是如此进行。那么,你说什么呢?难 道你说所有事物一直是也将始终是坏的,在如此多的神灵中还没有发现什么力量来修正这些 事物,而世界注定要以不停止恶的方式确立么?

The rottenness of the matter which is the foundation of everything! Water, dust, bones, filth: or again, marble rocks, the callosities of the earth; and gold and silver, the sediments; and garments, only bits of hair; and purple dye, blood; and everything else is of the same kind. And that which is of the nature of breath is also another thing of the same kind, changing from this to that.

那为一切事物基础的物质的腐烂!水、灰尘、骨头、垃圾,或者是:大理石-土的硬化; 金银-冲积物;衣服-只是一些毛皮;染织的紫袍-血;其他一切也都是同一性质。那具有 呼吸本性的一个事物也是具有同样本性的另一个事物,从这一个变化到另一个。

Enough of this wretched life and murmuring and apish tricks. Why art thou disturbed? What is there new in this? What unsettles thee? Is it the form of the thing? Look at it. Or is it the matter? Look at it. But besides these there is nothing. Towards the gods, then, now become at last more simple and better. It is the same whether we examine these things for a hundred years or three.

够了,这种悲惨的生命、呻吟和愚蠢的诡计。你为什么烦恼呢?在这里有什么新的东西没有 呢?有什么使人不安吗?是事物的形式吗?注意它。或者是质料?观察它。而在这些之外一 无所有。那么,朝向神吧,现在终于变得更简朴、更好了。我们无论是花100 年还是花300 年考察这些事物,结论都是一样的。

If any man has done wrong, the harm is his own. But perhaps he has not done wrong.

如果有什么人做了错呈,那么损害是对他自己的。但也许他并没有做错事。

Either all things proceed from one intelligent source and come together as in one body, and the part ought not to find fault with what is done for the benefit of the whole; or there are only atoms, and nothing else than mixture and dispersion. Why, then, art thou disturbed? Say to the ruling faculty, Art thou dead, art thou corrupted, art thou playing the hypocrite, art thou become a beast, dost thou herd and feed with the rest?

或者是所有东西都来自一个理智的本原,在一个身体中结为一体,那么部分就不应不满于为 了整体的利益所做的事情;或者只有原子存在,除了原子的混合与分解别无他物。那你为什 么烦恼呢?要对支配的能力说:你已经死了吗?你衰朽了吗,你正在扮演虚伪者的角色吗? 你要变成一头野兽吗,你与其他人群集在一起并对他们不满吗?

Either the gods have no power or they have power. If, then, they have no power, why dost thou pray to them? But if they have power, why dost thou not pray for them to give thee the faculty of not fearing any of the things which thou fearest, or of not desiring any of the things which thou desirest, or not being pained at anything, rather than pray that any of these things should not happen or happen? for certainly if they can co-operate with men, they can co-operate for these purposes. But perhaps thou wilt say, the gods have placed them in thy power. Well, then, is it not better to use what is in thy power like a free man than to desire in a slavish and abject way what is not in thy power? And who has told thee that the gods do not aid us even in the things which are in our power? Begin, then, to pray for such things, and thou wilt see. One man prays thus: How shall I be able to lie with that woman? Do thou pray thus: How shall I not desire to lie with her? Another prays thus: How shall I be released from this? Another prays: How shall I not desire to be released? Another thus: How shall I not lose my little son? Thou thus: How shall I not be afraid to lose him? In fine, turn thy prayers this way, and see what comes.

神灵要末有力量要末没有力量,那么,如果他们没有力量,你为什么向他们祷告呢?而如果 他们有力量,你为什么不向他们祷告,祈求给你这种不畏惧任何你所畏惧的事物,或者不欲 望任何你所欲望的事物,或不为任何事痛苦的能力呢?而反要祈求这些事发生或不发生呢? 因为肯定,如果他们能与人合作,他们也能在这些方面合作。但也许你要说,神灵已把这些 能力放在你的力量范围之内。那么好,像一个自由人一样运用在你力量范围内的事物不比一 种奴性和下贱的方式欲望那不在你力量范围内的事物更好吗?谁告诉你说神灵甚至在我们 力量范围内的事情上也不帮助我们呢?那么,去为这样的事情祷告吧,正如你所见,当一个 人那样祷告:我怎样才能与那个妇人同床共枕呢?而你却要这样祷告:我如何才能使自己不 抱这种欲望呢?当别人那样祷告说:我怎样才能不丧失我的幼子呢?而你要如此祷告:我怎 样才能做到不害怕失去他呢?总之,要以这样的方式祷告,然后再看看结果。

Epicurus says, In my sickness my conversation was not about my bodily sufferings, nor, says he, did I talk on such subjects to those who visited me; but I continued to discourse on the nature of things as before, keeping to this main point, how the mind, while participating in such movements as go on in the poor flesh, shall be free from perturbations and maintain its proper good. Nor did I, he says, give the physicians an opportunity of putting on solemn looks, as if they were doing something great, but my life went on well and happily. Do, then, the same that he did both in sickness, if thou art sick, and in any other circumstances; for never to desert philosophy in any events that may befall us, nor to hold trifling talk either with an ignorant man or with one unacquainted with nature, is a principle of all schools of philosophy; but to be intent only on that which thou art now doing and on the instrument by which thou doest it.

伊壁鸠鲁说,我在病中的谈话并不涉及我身体的痛苦,我不对拜访我的人谈这一话题,而是 -92- 继续像先前一样讨论事物的性质,保持着这一主题:即心灵在分担可怜的肉体中进行的运动 时,怎样免受扰乱、坚持它恰当的善。他说,我不给医生以机会做出一幅庄严的神情,仿佛 他们正做着什么伟大的事情,而我的生命正平静和幸福地运行。那么,如果你病了,也做他 在病中和任何别的场合所做的同样的事吧,因为在任何降病于我们的事情中都决不可放弃哲 学,而所有哲学派别的一个主要原则就是:不同一个无知的人或不谙自然的人做无谓的交谈, 而是仅仅注意你现在正做的事情和所用的手段。

When thou art offended with any man's shameless conduct, immediately ask thyself, Is it possible, then, that shameless men should not be in the world? It is not possible. Do not, then, require what is impossible. For this man also is one of those shameless men who must of necessity be in the world. Let the same considerations be present to thy mind in the case of the knave, and the faithless man, and of every man who does wrong in any way. For at the same time that thou dost remind thyself that it is impossible that such kind of men should not exist, thou wilt become more kindly disposed towards every one individually. It is useful to perceive this, too, immediately when the occasion arises, what virtue nature has given to man to oppose to every wrongful act. For she has given to man, as an antidote against the stupid man, mildness, and against another kind of man some other power. And in all cases it is possible for thee to correct by teaching the man who is gone astray; for every man who errs misses his object and is gone astray. Besides wherein hast thou been injured? For thou wilt find that no one among those against whom thou art irritated has done anything by which thy mind could be made worse; but that which is evil to thee and harmful has its foundation only in the mind. And what harm is done or what is there strange, if the man who has not been instructed does the acts of an uninstructed man? Consider whether thou shouldst not rather blame thyself, because thou didst not expect such a man to err in such a way. For thou hadst means given thee by thy reason to suppose that it was likely that he would commit this error, and yet thou hast forgotten and art amazed that he has erred. But most of all when thou blamest a man as faithless or ungrateful, turn to thyself. For the fault is manifestly thy own, whether thou didst trust that a man who had such a disposition would keep his promise, or when conferring thy kindness thou didst not confer it absolutely, nor yet in such way as to have received from thy very act all the profit. For what more dost thou want when thou hast done a man a service? Art thou not content that thou hast done something conformable to thy nature, and dost thou seek to be paid for it? Just as if the eye demanded a recompense for seeing, or the feet for walking. For as these members are formed for a particular purpose, and by working according to their several constitutions obtain what is their own; so also as man is formed by nature to acts of benevolence, when he has done anything benevolent or in any other way conducive to the common interest, he has acted conformably to his constitution, and he gets what is his own.

当什么人的无耻行为触犯你时,直接问自己,这世界上没有无耻的人存在是可能的吗?这是 不可能的。那么,别要不可能的事吧。因为这个触犯你的人也是那些必然要在这世界上不存 在的无耻的人中的一个。当你碰到骗子、背信弃义的人以及一切以某种方式行恶的人时,也 使同样的思想在你心中呈现,因为这样你马上可以提醒自己,不存在这种人是不可能的,你 将变得对每一个人的态度都更为和善。在这种时候,马上领悟到这一点也是有用的:即想想 自然赋予那对立于一切邪恶行为的人以什么德性。因为自然给了人某种别的力量,作为一种 抵制愚蠢的人、疯狂的人以及另一种人的解毒剂。在任何情况下,你都有可能通过劝导迷路 的人而纠正他们,因为每个做错事的人都是迷失了他的目标,走上了歧途。此外你还有什么 地方被损害了呢?因为你将发现在那些触犯你的人当中,没一个人做了能使你的心灵变坏的 -93- 事情,而那对你是恶的东西和损害只是在心灵里才有其基础。如果没有受教育的人做出一个 无教养的人的行为,那么产生了什么伤害呢?或者有什么值得奇怪的呢?考虑一下是否你还 不如谴责自己,因为你没有预先就料到这种人会以这种方式犯错误。因为你本来有理智给予 的手段去假设他犯这种错误,而你却忘记了使用,还奇怪他所犯的错误。在大多数你谴责一 个人是背信弃义或忘恩负义的场合,都可以转而这样责备自己。因为这错误显然是你自己的, 你或者是相信了一个有这种倾向的人将遵守他的诺言;或者是你在赐予你的善意时并没有绝 对地赐予,也不是以那种你将仅仅从你的行为中获得所有利益的方式赐予,当你为某人做出 某种服务时还想得到更多的东西吗?你不满足于你做了符合你本性的事情,而还想寻求对它 的酬报吗?就像假如眼睛要求给观看以酬报,脚要求给行走以酬报一样吗?因为这些身体的 部分是因为某种特殊目的而造就的,通过按照它们的各自结构工作而获得属它们自己的东 西;所以人也先天就是为仁爱行为而创造的,当他做了仁爱的行为或者别的有助于公共利益 的行为时,他就是符合他的结构而行动的,他就得到了属他自己的东西。