中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 10

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WILT thou, then, my soul, never be good and simple and one and naked, more manifest than the body which surrounds thee? Wilt thou never enjoy an affectionate and contented disposition? Wilt thou never be full and without a want of any kind, longing for nothing more, nor desiring anything, either animate or inanimate, for the enjoyment of pleasures? Nor yet desiring time wherein thou shalt have longer enjoyment, or place, or pleasant climate, or society of men with whom thou mayest live in harmony? But wilt thou be satisfied with thy present condition, and pleased with all that is about thee, and wilt thou convince thyself that thou hast everything and that it comes from the gods, that everything is well for thee, and will be well whatever shall please them, and whatever they shall give for the conservation of the perfect living being, the good and just and beautiful, which generates and holds together all things, and contains and embraces all things which are dissolved for the production of other like things? Wilt thou never be such that thou shalt so dwell in community with gods and men as neither to find fault with them at all, nor to be condemned by them?

噢,我的灵魂,难道你不愿意善良、朴实、纯净、坦白,使这些比将你环绕的身体更为明显 吗?你不愿享受一种宽仁和满足的气质吗?你不愿意充实、毫无匮乏、不渴望更多东西、不 欲望任何事物(不论是有生命的还是无生命的)以营快乐和享受吗?你也不渴望较长的愉快 的时光,不欲望合宜的寺主和气候,或者你可以和谐相处的人群吗?但你会满意于你现在条 件,对所有你周围的东西感到欣喜吗?你要使自己相信你拥有一切,相信它们是从神灵那儿 来的,相信一切对你都是适合的,相信所有使神灵愉悦的东西都是好的,所有他们为保存完 善的生命的存在,为保存善、正义和美而将给予的东西都是好的吗?那完善的生命存在概括 和结合了所有事物,包含和囊括了所有那为了别的类似事物的产生而分解的事物。你不愿这 样么,使你和神灵及人们共同生活在一起而全然不抱怨他们,也不被他们谴责?

Observe what thy nature requires, so far as thou art governed by nature only: then do it and accept it, if thy nature, so far as thou art a living being, shall not be made worse by it.

就你仅仅被本性支配而言,注意你的本性所要求的,然后接受它,履行它,只要你的本性就 你是一个活的存在而言不致损坏。

And next thou must observe what thy nature requires so far as thou art a living being. And all this -94- thou mayest allow thyself, if thy nature, so far as thou art a rational animal, shall not be made worse by it. But the rational animal is consequently also a political (social) animal. Use these rules, then, and trouble thyself about nothing else.

接着你必须观察你的本性就你是一个活的存在而言对你所要求的。所有这些你都可以应允自 己只要你的本性就你是一个理性动物而言不致损坏。但理性动物也因此是一种政治(社会) 动物。那么运用这些规则吧,不要使自己为任何别的东西苦恼。

Everything which happens either happens in such wise as thou art formed by nature to bear it, or as thou art not formed by nature to bear it. If, then, it happens to thee in such way as thou art formed by nature to bear it, do not complain, but bear it as thou art formed by nature to bear it. But if it happens in such wise as thou art not formed by nature to bear it, do not complain, for it will perish after it has consumed thee. Remember, however, that thou art formed by nature to bear everything, with respect to which it depends on thy own opinion to make it endurable and tolerable, by thinking that it is either thy interest or thy duty to do this.

一切发生的事情都或者是以你天生就是被创造出来忍受它的方式发生,或者是以你并不是天 生就被创造来忍受它的方式发生。那么,如果它是以前一种方式发生,不要抱怨,而是以你 天生是被创造出来忍受它的态度来忍受它。但如果它是以后一种方式发生,也不要抱怨,因 为在它消耗完你之前自己就要消失。然而要记住:你是天生被创造出来忍受这一切的,你要 依赖你自己的意见使它们变得可以忍受,通过思考这样做或者是你的利益,或者是你的义务。

If a man is mistaken, instruct him kindly and show him his error. But if thou art not able, blame thyself, or blame not even thyself.

如果一个人错了,那么就和善地指引他,说明他的错误。但如果你不能够,那么就责备你自 己,甚或连自己也不责备。

Whatever may happen to thee, it was prepared for thee from all eternity; and the implication of causes was from eternity spinning the thread of thy being, and of that which is incident to it.

无论什么事情对你发生,都是在整个万古永恒中就为你预备好的,因果的织机在万古永恒中 织着你和与你相关联的事物的线。

Whether the universe is a concourse of atoms, or nature is a system, let this first be established, that I am a part of the whole which is governed by nature; next, I am in a manner intimately related to the parts which are of the same kind with myself. For remembering this, inasmuch as I am a part, I shall be discontented with none of the things which are assigned to me out of the whole; for nothing is injurious to the part, if it is for the advantage of the whole. For the whole contains nothing which is not for its advantage; and all natures indeed have this common principle, but the nature of the universe has this principle besides, that it cannot be compelled even by any external cause to generate anything harmful to itself. By remembering, then, that I am a part of such a whole, I shall be content with everything that happens. And inasmuch as I am in a manner intimately related to the parts which are of the same kind with myself, I shall do nothing unsocial, but I shall rather direct myself to the things which are of the same kind with myself, and I shall turn an my efforts to the common interest, and divert them from the contrary. Now, if these things are done so, life must flow on happily, just as thou mayest observe that the life of a citizen is happy, who continues a course of action which is advantageous to his fellow-citizens, and is content with whatever the state may assign to him.

不管宇宙是原子的集合,或者说自然是一体系,首先要确信我是本性所支配的整体的一部分; 其次,我在某种程度上和与我自己同类的其他部分密切关联着。因为要记住这一点,由于我 是一个部分,对于一切出于整体而分配给我的事物,我都不会不满意。因为凡是为了整体的 利益而存在的,对于部分就不会有害。因为整体不会包含对它无益的东西;一切本性固然都 有这个共同的原则,但宇宙的本性此外还有这个原则:即它甚至于不能由任何外面的东西迫 使它产生任何对它自己有害的东西。因此,由于记住我是这整体的一部分,我就会对所有发 生的事情满意了。而由于我和与我自己同类的那些部分在某种程度上密切关联着,我就不会 做反社会的事情,而宁愿使自己趋向我的同为,把我的全部精力用于公共利益,而拒斥与公 共利益相反的事情。那么,如果这样做,生活就一定会过得幸福,正像你可以看到的:一个 不断做对其他公民有利的事情的人,满足国家指派给他的一切的人,他的生活是幸福的。

The parts of the whole, everything, I mean, which is naturally comprehended in the universe, must of necessity perish; but let this be understood in this sense, that they must undergo change. But if this is naturally both an evil and a necessity for the parts, the whole would not continue to exist in a good condition, the parts being subject to change and constituted so as to perish in various ways. For whether did nature herself design to do evil to the things which are parts of herself, and to make them subject to evil and of necessity fall into evil, or have such results happened without her knowing it? Both these suppositions, indeed, are incredible. But if a man should even drop the term Nature (as an efficient power), and should speak of these things as natural, even then it would be ridiculous to affirm at the same time that the parts of the whole are in their nature subject to change, and at the same time to be surprised or vexed as if something were happening contrary to nature, particularly as the dissolution of things is into those things of which each thing is composed. For there is either a dispersion of the elements out of which everything has been compounded, or a change from the solid to the earthy and from the airy to the aerial, so that these parts are taken back into the universal reason, whether this at certain periods is consumed by fire or renewed by eternal changes. And do not imagine that the solid and the airy part belong to thee from the time of generation. For all this received its accretion only yesterday and the day before, as one may say, from the food and the air which is inspired. This, then, which has received the accretion, changes, not that which thy mother brought forth. But suppose that this which thy mother brought forth implicates thee very much with that other part, which has the peculiar quality of change, this is nothing in fact in the way of objection to what is said.

整体的各个部分,我的意思是,自然地包含在宇宙里的一切事物,都必然要毁灭;但是要在 这样的意义下来理解毁灭,即它们必定要经历变化。但假如对于各个部分来说,这件事自然 地既是一种恶又是一种必然性,那么整体就不会在一个好的条件下继续存在了,因为它的各 个部分都在变化中,并且它们的结构使得它们以不同的方式毁灭。因为究竟是自然自身计划 好对那些作为它的部分的事情行恶,从而使它们从属于恶,并且必然地陷入其中呢,还是这 些结果发生了而自然并不知道呢?事实上,这些假设都是不可信的。但如果一个人即使不用 "自然"这个词(作为一种发生作用的力量),而把上述的事情都说成是自然的,即使是这样, 一方面肯定整体的各部分以其本性从属于变化,同时另一方面又觉得惊奇或烦恼,好像有什 么违反本性的事情在发生,特别是当事物分解为每一事物由以组成的那些事物时感到烦恼和 惊奇,那将是可笑的。因为或者是组合成事物的各元素的分解,或者是由固体到泥土,从气 体到气的转变,使这些部分回到宇宙的理性,而这或者是在一定周期内为火所消灭,或者是 为永恒的变化所更新,不要想像固体和气体的部分从产生时起就属于你。因为它们所得到的 -96- 这一切生长,可以说只是昨天和前天由食物和吸进的空气而来的。那么,得到生长、变化的 这一切,并不仅仅是你母亲所产生的。但可以设想你母亲所产生的东西是使你在很大程度上 与那另外的具有变化特性的部分连在一起,事实上这并不有悖于上面所说的。

When thou hast assumed these names, good, modest, true, rational, a man of equanimity, and magnanimous, take care that thou dost not change these names; and if thou shouldst lose them, quickly return to them. And remember that the term Rational was intended to signify a discriminating attention to every several thing and freedom from negligence; and that Equanimity is the voluntary acceptance of the things which are assigned to thee by the common nature; and that Magnanimity is the elevation of the intelligent part above the pleasurable or painful sensations of the flesh, and above that poor thing called fame, and death, and all such things. If, then, thou maintainest thyself in the possession of these names, without desiring to be called by these names by others, thou wilt be another person and wilt enter on another life. For to continue to be such as thou hast hitherto been, and to be tom in pieces and defiled in such a life, is the character of a very stupid man and one overfond of his life, and like those half-devoured fighters with wild beasts, who though covered with wounds and gore, still intreat to be kept to the following day, though they will be exposed in the same state to the same claws and bites. Therefore fix thyself in the possession of these few names: and if thou art able to abide in them, abide as if thou wast removed to certain islands of the Happy. But if thou shalt perceive that thou fallest out of them and dost not maintain thy hold, go courageously into some nook where thou shalt maintain them, or even depart at once from life, not in passion, but with simplicity and freedom and modesty, after doing this one laudable thing at least in thy life, to have gone out of it thus. In order, however, to the remembrance of these names, it will greatly help thee, if thou rememberest the gods, and that they wish not to be flattered, but wish all reasonable beings to be made like themselves; and if thou rememberest that what does the work of a fig-tree is a fig-tree, and that what does the work of a dog is a dog, and that what does the work of a bee is a bee, and that what does the work of a man is a man.

如果你取得了这些名称:善良、谦虚、真诚、理智、镇定、豁达,注意不要改变它们;如果 你失去了它们,迅速地回到它们。记住"理智"这个词是要表示对一切个别的事物的一种明辨 和摆脱了无知;"镇定"是指自愿地接受共同本性分派给你的事物;"豁达"是指有理智的部分 超越肉体的使人愉悦或痛苦的感觉,超越所有那些被称之为名声、死亡之类的可怜事物。那 么,如果你要自己保存上述这些名称,而不想由别人来称呼这些名称,你将成为另一个人, 进入另一种生活。因为,继续保持你原来的样子,被这样一种生活撕碎和玷污,是一个大傻 瓜和过分溺爱自己的生命的人才有的品格,就像那些同野兽搏斗的被咬得遍体鳞伤的角斗 士,他们虽然满身伤口和血块,还是恳求被养到下一天,虽然他们将在同样的状态中被投给 同样的爪子和撕咬。所以你要固守这几个名称,如果你能居于它们之中,那就仿佛你回到了 某个幸福之岛居住。但如果你察知你脱离了它们,没有把握住它们,那么勇敢地去那你将保 有它们的一隅,甚或马上放弃生命,不是在激情中,而是朴实、自愿和谦虚地放弃生命,在 做了这件至少在你生命中可赞美的事之后,再如此离开它。然而,如果你记住神,记住他们 虽然不愿意被奉承,但希望所有有理性的存在塑造得和他们类似;记住一株无花果树的工作 就是做一株无花果树;一只狗的工作就是做一只狗,一只蜜蜂的工作就是做一只蜜蜂,一个 人的工作就是做一个人,那么这将会对你大有助益,帮助你记住这些名称。

Mimi, war, astonishment, torpor, slavery, will daily wipe out those holy principles of thine. How many things without studying nature dost thou imagine, and how many dost thou neglect? But it is thy duty so to look on and so to do everything, that at the same time the power of dealing with circumstances is perfected, and the contemplative faculty is exercised, and the confidence which comes from the knowledge of each several thing is maintained without showing it, but yet not concealed. For when wilt thou enjoy simplicity, when gravity, and when the knowledge of every several thing, both what it is in substance, and what place it has in the universe, and how long it is formed to exist and of what things it is compounded, and to whom it can belong, and who are able both to give it and take it away?

滑稽戏、战争、惊奇、呆钝、奴役将每日驱逐你那些神圣的原则。你没有研究自然而想像 了多少事物?你忽视了多少事物那么观察和实践一切事情,同时完善你应对环境的力量,训 练思考能力,不炫耀但也不隐藏地保有一种来自对每一个别事物的知识的确信,就成为你的 义务。因为你要在什么时候享受简朴,享受庄严,享受一切单个事物的知识呢?那些知识包 括:每一事物在实体中是什么,在宇宙中据何地位,它要以这种形式存在多久,它是由什么 东西所构成,隶属于谁,谁能给予它和拿走它。

A spider is proud when it has caught a fly, and another when he has caught a poor hare, and another when he has taken a little fish in a net, and another when he has taken wild boars, and another when he has taken bears, and another when he has taken Sarmatians. Are not these robbers, if thou examinest their opinions?

一只蜘蛛抓住一只苍蝇时是骄傲的;而当另一种动物抓住一只可怜的野兔时,在网里抓住一 点鱼时,捕获一头野猪或者熊时,俘虏萨尔马提亚人时也是骄傲的。如果你考察他们的意见, 这些人不是强盗吗?

Acquire the contemplative way of seeing how all things change into one another, and constantly attend to it, and exercise thyself about this part of philosophy. For nothing is so much adapted to produce magnanimity. Such a man has put off the body, and as he sees that he must, no one knows how soon, go away from among men and leave everything here, he gives himself up entirely to just doing in all his actions, and in everything else that happens he resigns himself to the universal nature. But as to what any man shall say or think about him or do against him, he never even thinks of it, being himself contented with these two things, with acting justly in what he now does, and being satisfied with what is now assigned to him; and he lays aside all distracting and busy pursuits, and desires nothing else than to accomplish the straight course through the law, and by accomplishing the straight course to follow God.

使你掌握这种凝思的方式:观察所有的事物是如何互相变化的,始终注意着这种变化,在哲 学的这一方面训练你自己。因为没有什么东西如此适合于产生豁达。这样的人不关心身体, 因为他明白他必须在某个时刻(无人知道多久)离开人世,把一切都留在这儿,他仅注意在 他的所有行动中行为正直,而在其他一切发生的事情中则顺从宇宙的本性。而至于别人将怎 样说他或想他,或反对他,他甚至没考虑过这个问题,而只是使自己满足于这两件事情:一 是满足于在他现在做的事情中行为正直;二是满足于现在分派给他的事物。他搁置了所有分 心和忙碌的追求,除此以外别无所欲-通过法走一条笔直的路,通过这条直路追随神。

What need is there of suspicious fear, since it is in thy power to inquire what ought to be done? And if thou seest clear, go by this way content, without turning back: but if thou dost not see clear, stop and take the best advisers. But if any other things oppose thee, go on according to thy powers with due consideration, keeping to that which appears to be just. For it is best to reach this object, and if thou dost fail, let thy failure be in attempting this. He who follows reason in all things is both tranquil and active at the same time, and also cheerful and collected.

既然探讨应当做什么是在你的力量范围之内,多疑的畏惧有何必要呢?如果你看得清楚,满 意地走过去而不要折回;如果你看不清楚,停下来询问最好的顾问。但如果有什么别的东西 反对你,那么根据你的力量谨慎明智地继续前行,保持那看来是正当的东西。因为达到这一 目标是最好的,如果你做不到,也要让你的失败是尝试的失败。在所有事情上遵循理智的人 既是宁静的又是积极的,既是欢乐的又是镇定的。

Inquire of thyself as soon as thou wakest from sleep, whether it will make any difference to thee, if another does what is just and right. It will make no difference.

一从睡眠中苏醒就问自己,如果另一个人做了正义和恰当的事,对你是否将有什么不同。这 不会有什么不同。

Thou hast not forgotten, I suppose, that those who assume arrogant airs in bestowing their praise or blame on others, are such as they are at bed and at board, and thou hast not forgotten what they do, and what they avoid and what they pursue, and how they steal and how they rob, not with hands and feet, but with their most valuable part, by means of which there is produced, when a man chooses, fidelity, modesty, truth, law, a good daemon (happiness)?

我设想,你没有忘记吧,那些在褒贬别人时态度傲慢的人是怎样的人,他们是在床上或船上 的人;你没有忘记吧,没忘记他们所做的、所避开的、所追求的,以及他们如何偷、如何抢, 不是用手脚,而是用他们最宝贵的部分。当一个人愿意时,本可以用这一部分产生出忠实、 谦虚、真诚、守法和一个好的守护神(幸福)。

To her who gives and takes back all, to nature, the man who is instructed and modest says, Give what thou wilt; take back what thou wilt. And he says this not proudly, but obediently and well pleased with her.

对那给出一切并收回一切的自然,有教养和谦虚的人说,按你的意愿给吧,按你的意愿收回 吧。他不是骄傲地这样说,而是怀着忠顺和对自然的欣喜说出这番话。

Short is the little which remains to thee of life. Live as on a mountain. For it makes no difference whether a man lives there or here, if he lives everywhere in the world as in a state (political community). Let men see, let them know a real man who lives according to nature. If they cannot endure him, let them kill him. For that is better than to live thus as men do.

你正是风烛残年。像在一座山上一样生活吧。因为如果一个人生活在世界上任何地方都像生 活在一个国家(政治团体)中一样,那么住这儿或住那儿对他并没有什么关系。让人们看看, 让他们认识一个真正按照本性生活的人。如果他们忍受不了他,让他们杀了他。因为这比像 人们如此生活还要好些。

No longer talk at all about the kind of man that a good man ought to be, but be such.

全然不要再谈论一个高尚的人应当具有的品质,而是要成为这样的人。

Constantly contemplate the whole of time and the whole of substance, and consider that all individual things as to substance are a grain of a fig, and as to time, the turning of a gimlet.

不断地沉思全部时间和整个实体,考虑所有个别的事物对实体来说就像是沧海一粟,对于时 间来说就像是螺丝锥的一下转动。

Look at everything that exists, and observe that it is already in dissolution and in change, and as it were putrefaction or dispersion, or that everything is so constituted by nature as to die.

注意一切存在的事物,观察那已经分解和变化的事物,就像它是在腐朽和消散,或者一切事 物都是先天地如此构成以致必然毁灭。

Consider what men are when they are eating, sleeping, generating, easing themselves and so forth. Then what kind of men they are when they are imperious and arrogant, or angry and scolding from their elevated place. But a short time ago to how many they were slaves and for what things; and after a little time consider in what a condition they will be.

考虑人们在吃饭、睡觉、生产、娱乐等时候是什么样的人,然后考虑他们在不敬或傲慢,或 者据其高位发怒和叱责时是什么样的人。而在不久之前他们是多少人的奴隶,是为了什么事 情受人奴役,考虑过一会儿他们又将进入什么状态。

That is for the good of each thing, which the universal nature brings to each. And it is for its good at the time when nature brings it.

宇宙的本性带给每一事物的东西都是有利于它们的。当本性带给它们时,那是为了它们的。

"The earth loves the shower"; and "the solemn aether loves": and the universe loves to make whatever is about to be. I say then to the universe, that I love as thou lovest. And is not this too said, that "this or that loves (is wont) to be produced"?

"大地喜爱阵雨";"喜爱神圣的以太"。宇宙喜爱创造无论什么要发生的事物。那么我对宇 宙说,我像你喜爱一样喜爱。这不也说了吗,"这种或那种事物喜爱(习惯于)被产生"?

Either thou livest here and hast already accustomed thyself to it, or thou art going away, and this was thy own will; or thou art dying and hast discharged thy duty. But besides these things there is nothing. Be of good cheer, then.

或是你住在这儿,已经使自己习惯了这里;或是你要离开,这是你自己的意志;或是你要死 去,卸下你的义务。而在这些事之外一无所有。那么,好好地欢乐地生活吧。

Let this always be plain to thee, that this piece of land is like any other; and that all things here are the same with things on top of a mountain, or on the sea-shore, or wherever thou choosest to be. For thou wilt find just what Plato says, Dwelling within the walls of a city as in a shepherd's fold on a mountain.

让这对你总是明白的;这块陆地跟别的陆地一样,这里所有的事物跟一座山上,或者海边, 或任何你愿去的地方的事物一模一样。因为你将发现正像柏拉图所说的,居于一个城的城墙 之内就跟居于山上一个牧人的草棚中一样。

What is my ruling faculty now to me? And of what nature am I now making it? And for what purpose am I now using it? Is it void of understanding? Is it loosed and rent asunder from social life? Is it melted into and mixed with the poor flesh so as to move together with it?

我的支配能力现在对我是什么呢?我现在正把它塑造成什么性质呢?我现在正为什么目的运用它呢?它缺少理解力吗?它是放荡不羁、跟社会生活没关系吗?它融进和混合着可怜的 肉体以致倾向于它结为一体吗?

He who flies from his master is a runaway; but the law is master, and he who breaks the law is a runaway. And he also who is grieved or angry or afraid, is dissatisfied because something has been or is or shall be of the things which are appointed by him who rules all things, and he is Law, and assigns to every man what is fit. He then who fears or is grieved or is angry is a runaway.

从其主人那里逃走的人是一逃亡者,但现在主人是法,那违反法的人是一逃亡者。那悲叹、 愤怒或者畏惧的人也是逃亡者,他因为某些过去或现在或将要产生的事是由所有事物的统治 者指派而不满,这统治者就是法,他分派给每人以适合的东西。那么,那悲叹、愤怒或者畏 惧的人就是一个逃亡者。

A man deposits seed in a womb and goes away, and then another cause takes it, and labours on it and makes a child. What a thing from such a material! Again, the child passes food down through the throat, and then another cause takes it and makes perception and motion, and in fine life and strength and other things; how many and how strange I Observe then the things which are produced in such a hidden way, and see the power just as we see the power which carries things downwards and upwards, not with the eyes, but still no less plainly.

一个男人放下种子在一个子宫里,然后离去了,另一种本原接着照管它,作用于它,使之成 为一个孩子。从这样一种质料中产生了一种什么东西啊!然后,这孩子通过喉咙吃下食物, 另一种本原又接着照管它,造出知觉和运动,以及健康的生命、力量和别的东西;有多少人 是这样成长,这又是多么奇怪啊!然后观察以这种隐蔽方式造就的事物,观察这种力量正像 我们观察那使事物上下运动的力量一样,当然不是用眼睛,但并不因此就不清晰。

Constantly consider how all things such as they now are, in time past also were; and consider that they will be the same again. And place before thy eyes entire dramas and stages of the same form, whatever thou hast learned from thy experience or from older history; for example, the whole court of Hadrian, and the whole court of Antoninus, and the whole court of Philip, Alexander, Croesus; for all those were such dramas as we see now, only with different actors.

不断地思考所有现存的事物过去也是这样存在,思考它们在将来也会是同样。使你的眼前呈 现同样形式的所有戏剧和舞台,无论它们是从你的经验还历史中得知的。例如,赫德里安的 整个宫廷,安东尼的整个宫廷,还有菲力蒲、亚历山大、克里瑟斯的整个宫廷;因为所有过 去的这些都是我们现在所看到的戏剧,只是换了演员。

Imagine every man who is grieved at anything or discontented to be like a pig which is sacrificed and kicks and screams.

想像一下所有悲叹或不满于一切事物的人,他们就像是一只做牺牲的猪那样挣扎和叫喊。

Like this pig also is he who on his bed in silence laments the bonds in which we are held. And consider that only to the rational animal is it given to follow voluntarily what happens; but simply to follow is a necessity imposed on all.

那在他床上为人们的被束缚而默默哀伤的人,也像这只猪,考虑一下自愿地顺从所发生的事是仅仅给予理性动物的品质,而顺从则是加于所有存在物的一种必然性。

Severally on the occasion of everything that thou doest, pause and ask thyself, if death is a dreadful thing because it deprives thee of this.

在你做所有事情的场合,都分别停下来问问自己;是否由于死亡剥夺了你做这事的机会它就 是一件可怕的事情。

When thou art offended at any man's fault, forthwith turn to thyself and reflect in what like manner thou dost err thyself; for example, in thinking that money is a good thing, or pleasure, or a bit of reputation, and the like. For by attending to this thou wilt quickly forget thy anger, if this consideration also is added, that the man is compelled: for what else could he do? or, if thou art able, take away from him the compulsion.

当你因什么人的错误生气时,立刻转向自己,想想你自己是否犯过类似的错误,例如,以为 金钱是一件好东西,或者快乐,一点名声等等是好东西。因为通过注意这些,你将迅速地忘 记你的愤怒,如果再加上这一考虑:这个人是被迫的,他怎么能不这样做呢?或者,如果你 能够,那么为你解脱压迫吧。

When thou hast seen Satyron the Socratic, think of either Eutyches or Hymen, and when thou hast seen Euphrates, think of Eutychion or Silvanus, and when thou hast seen Alciphron think of Tropaeophorus, and when thou hast seen Xenophon think of Crito or Severus, and when thou hast looked on thyself, think of any other Caesar, and in the case of every one do in like manner. Then let this thought be in thy mind, Where then are those men? Nowhere, or nobody knows where. For thus continuously thou wilt look at human things as smoke and nothing at all; especially if thou reflectest at the same time that what has once changed will never exist again in the infinite duration of time. But thou, in what a brief space of time is thy existence? And why art thou not content to pass through this short time in an orderly way? What matter and opportunity for thy activity art thou avoiding? For what else are all these things, except exercises for the reason, when it has viewed carefully and by examination into their nature the things which happen in life? Persevere then until thou shalt have made these things thy own, as the stomach which is strengthened makes all things its own, as the blazing fire makes flame and brightness out of everything that is thrown into it.

当你见到苏格拉底派学者萨特隆时,想想尤提切斯或希门,当你见到幼发拉底斯时,想想特 洛珀奥佛勒斯,当你见到色诺芬时,想想克里托或西维勒斯,当你反观自己时,想想任何别 的凯撒。在他们每个人的情况下都是以类似的方式行动的。然后让这一思想出现在你心里: 这些人现在都在哪里呢?无处可寻,无人知道。因为通过这样不断的思考,你将把人看做尘 土和完全的虚无,特别是如果你同时思考一旦变化的东西决不会在时间的无限持续中再存 在。而你,你的存在占据一个多短的时间呢?你为什么不满足于以一种有秩序的方式通过这 一瞬间呢?你在为你的活动避免什么事件和时机呢?所有这些事物,除了在理性细察和深究 那发生于生活中的事物的本性时被用来训练理性之外,难道还有什么别的用处吗?那么坚持 到你将把这些事物转变成属于你自己的时候为止吧,就像那结实的胃把所有食物变成它自己 的一样,像那大火使投入其中的一切东西的火焰和亮光都成为自己的一样。

Let it not be in any man's power to say truly of thee that thou art not simple or that thou are not good; but let him be a liar whoever shall think anything of this kind about thee; and this is -102- altogether in thy power. For who is he that shall hinder thee from being good and simple? Do thou only determine to live no longer, unless thou shalt be such. For neither does reason allow thee to live, if thou art not such.

让任何人都不能如实地说你不是简朴的或不是善的,让任何要认为你没有这种品质的人都成 为一个说谎者,这些完全是在你的力量范围之内。因为谁能阻止你成为善良朴实的人呢?除 非你成为这种人,否则你就只能决定不再生存。因为如果你不是这种人,理性决不允许你生 存。

What is that which as to this material (our life) can be done or said in the way most conformable to reason. For whatever this may be, it is in thy power to do it or to say it, and do not make excuses that thou art hindered. Thou wilt not cease to lament till thy mind is in such a condition that, what luxury is to those who enjoy pleasure, such shall be to thee, in the matter which is subjected and presented to thee, the doing of the things which are conformable to man's constitution; for a man ought to consider as an enjoyment everything which it is in his power to do according to his own nature. And it is in his power everywhere. Now, it is not given to a cylinder to move everywhere by its own motion, nor yet to water nor to fire, nor to anything else which is governed by nature or an irrational soul, for the things which check them and stand in the way are many. But intelligence and reason are able to go through everything that opposes them, and in such manner as they are formed by nature and as they choose. Place before thy eyes this facility with which the reason will be carried through all things, as fire upwards, as a stone downwards, as a cylinder down an inclined surface, and seek for nothing further. For all other obstacles either affect the body only which is a dead thing; or, except through opinion and the yielding of the reason itself, they do not crush nor do any harm of any kind; for if they did, he who felt it would immediately become bad. Now, in the case of all things which have a certain constitution, whatever harm may happen to any of them, that which is so affected becomes consequently worse; but in the like case, a man becomes both better, if one may say so, and more worthy of praise by making a right use of these accidents. And finally remember that nothing harms him who is really a citizen, which does not harm the state; nor yet does anything harm the state, which does not harm law (order); and of these things which are called misfortunes not one harms law. What then does not harm law does not harm either state or citizen.

对于这一质料(我们的生命),能以最合符理性的方式做或说的事情是什么呢?无论这事情 是什么,做它或说它都在你的力量范围之内,不要为你受阻而辩解。你的心灵要进入这样一 种状态你才会停止哀伤,那些享受快乐的人是多么得意,而你的状态却是这种:对于那隶属 和呈现于你的事情,按照人的结构去做这些事,因为一个人应当把根据他自己的本性行事是 他力所能及这一点看做一种享受。无论他身居何处,这都是在他的力量范围之内。而这种能 力却没有给予到处滚动的一个圆筒,也没有给予水、火以及一切别受自然或无理性灵魂支配 的事物,因为阻止它们和挡住它们的东西是很多的。而理智和理性却能顺利地通过一切反对 它们的事物,是先天就赋有这种能力的,这也是它们所愿意的。总是把这种便利置于眼前, 理性据此将顺利通过所有事物,就像苗上窜、石头下落、圆筒顺着斜坡往下滚一样,不要再 寻求别的。因为所有其他的障碍或者只是影响那无生命的物体,或者只有通过意见和理性自 身的放弃,它们才能产生压迫或做出损害;因为如果它们做出了损害,那感受到这损害的人 将马上变得悲惨。在一切有某种结构的事物那里,对它们无论发生什么损害,那被如此影响 的事物就会因此而处境变坏,而在类似的情况中,可以说,一个人通过正确地运用这些事物 却会变得更好和更值得赞扬。最后记住:那不损害到国家的事情,也决不会损害到真正的公民;那不损害到法(秩序)的事情,也决不会损害到国家;而被称为不幸事件的这些事物中 并无一个损害到法,这样,不损害到法的东西也就决不损害到国家或公民。

To him who is penetrated by true principles even the briefest precept is sufficient, and any common precept, to remind him that he should be free from grief and fear. For example-

对于把握了真正的原则的人来说,甚至最简单的箴言了也是足够的。任何普通的箴言都要提 醒他要摆脱哀伤和畏惧。例如

Leaves, some the wind scatters on the ground- So is the race of men. Leaves, also, are thy children; and leaves, too, are they who cry out as if they were worthy of credit and bestow their praise, or on the contrary curse, or secretly blame and sneer; and leaves, in like manner, are those who shall receive and transmit a man's fame to aftertimes. For all such things as these "are produced in the season of spring," as the poet says; then the wind casts them down; then the forest produces other leaves in their places. But a brief existence is common to all things, and yet thou avoidest and pursuest all things as if they would be eternal. A little time, and thou shalt close thy eyes; and him who has attended thee to thy grave another soon will lament. "

树叶,一些被风在地上驱散的树叶-而这就是人类。" 你的孩子们也是树叶,那些仿佛他们配得上称颂和赞扬的人,或者因相反的诅咒、暗中的谴 责和轻蔑而呼号的人,也是树叶。同样,那些将获得名声并把它传到今后的人也是树叶。因 为所有这些东西就像诗人所说:是"从春天产生的",然后风把它们吹下;然后树木又在它们 原先的地方长出新的叶子。所有事物都只有一个短暂的存在,而你却避免和追求所有事物, 仿佛它们是永恒的一样。再过一会儿,你就将合上你的眼,那为你上坟的人不久也要被人悼。

The healthy eye ought to see all visible things and not to say, I wish for green things; for this is the condition of a diseased eye. And the healthy hearing and smelling ought to be ready to perceive all that can be heard and smelled. And the healthy stomach ought to be with respect to all food just as the mill with respect to all things which it is formed to grind. And accordingly the healthy understanding ought to be prepared for everything which happens; but that which says, Let my dear children live, and let all men praise whatever I may do, is an eye which seeks for green things, or teeth which seek for soft things.

健全的眼睛应当看所有可见的事物,而不是只希望看绿色的东西;因为这愿望是一双病眼所 要求的。健全的听觉嗅觉也应当乐意去察觉所有能听到和闻到的东西。健全的胃应当像磨子 对待所有它天生要磨的东西一样对待所有食物。所以,健全的理智应当是为所有发生的事情 准备的,而这种说法:让我亲爱的孩子活着,让所有人赞扬我做的一切,就如同一双寻求绿 色事物的病眼,或一副寻求柔软食物的朽牙一样。

There is no man so fortunate that there shall not be by him when he is dying some who are pleased with what is going to happen. Suppose that he was a good and wise man, will there not be at last some one to say to himself, Let us at last breathe freely being relieved from this schoolmaster? It is true that he was harsh to none of us, but I perceived that he tacitly condemns us.- This is what is said of a good man. But in our own case how many other things are there for which there are many who wish to get rid of us. Thou wilt consider this then when thou art dying, and thou wilt depart more contentedly by reflecting thus: I am going away from such a life, in which even my associates in behalf of whom I have striven so much, prayed, and cared, themselves wish me to depart, hoping perchance to get some little advantage by it. Why then should a man cling to a longer stay here? Do not however for this reason go away less kindly disposed to them, but preserving thy own character, and friendly and benevolent and mild, and on the other hand not as if thou wast torn away; but as when a man dies a quiet death, the poor soul is easily separated from the body, such also ought thy departure from men to be, for nature united thee to them and associated thee. But does she now dissolve the union? Well, I am separated as from kinsmen, not however dragged resisting, but without compulsion; for this too is one of the things according to nature.

没有一个人会如此幸运,以致在他临死时身边没有对他的死会感到松快的人。假设他是一个 好人、一个智者,最后不也是会有人心里这样说吗:让我们最终摆脱这位老师而自由地呼吸 吧,确实,他对我们任何人都不严厉,但我想他是默默地谴责我们。-这就是对一个好人所 说的。而在我们的情况中,有多少别的原因使许多人希望摆脱我们。那么,当你临死时你要 想到这一点,你要这样思考以较满意地离开:我就要从这样一种生活中离去了,在这种生活 中甚至我如此努力地为之谋利、祈祷和关心的同伴也希望我离去,希望也许从中得到一点好 处。那么一个人为什么要执着于一种较长的尘世间的逗留呢?然而也不要为此就在离去时对 他们态度不和善,而是坚持你自己的品格,友好、仁爱和温柔;另一方面不要做得仿佛你是 被拖走的,而是像一个安祥地死去的人一样。可怜的灵魂是容易同身体分开的,你同人们的 分离也应当是这样,因为自然曾把你与他们联系和结合起来。但现在她分解了这一结合吗? 好,我就像从同类中分离一样,无论如何不要推推揉揉地抵抗,而是甘心情愿,因为这也是 合乎自然的一件事。

Accustom thyself as much as possible on the occasion of anything being done by any person to inquire with thyself, For what object is this man doing this? But begin with thyself, and examine thyself first. 碰到任何人做什么事都尽可能地使自己习惯于这样问自己:这个人做这件事是为了什么目 的?但从你自己开始吧,先考察你自己。

Remember that this which pulls the strings is the thing which is hidden within: this is the power of persuasion, this is life, this, if one may so say, is man. In contemplating thyself never include the vessel which surrounds thee and these instruments which are attached about it. For they are like to an axe, differing only in this that they grow to the body. For indeed there is no more use in these parts without the cause which moves and checks them than in the weaver's shuttle, and the writer's pen and the driver's whip.

记住,那操纵你的是隐蔽在内部的:这是信念的力量,这是生命,如果可以这样说的话,也 可以说这是人。在思考你自己时决不要包括那将你围绕的皮囊和那些依附于它的东西。因为 它们就像是一把斧子,差别仅在于它们是长在身体上面。由于没有推动和制约它们的本原, 这些部分的确不比织工的梭子、作家的笔和牧人的鞭子有更多的用处。