中英双语版《沉思录》在线阅读朗读 - Book 11

时间 : 2013-10-22 15:14来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :

THESE are the properties of the rational soul: it sees itself, analyses itself, and makes itself such as it chooses; the fruit which it bears itself enjoys- for the fruits of plants and that in animals which corresponds to fruits others enjoy- it obtains its own end, wherever the limit of life may be fixed. Not as in a dance and in a play and in such like things, where the whole action is incomplete, if anything cuts it short; but in every part and wherever it may be stopped, it makes what has been set before it full and complete, so that it can say, I have what is my own. And further it traverses the whole universe, and the surrounding vacuum, and surveys its form, and it extends itself into the infinity of time, and embraces and comprehends the periodical renovation of all things, and it comprehends that those who come after us will see nothing new, nor have those before us seen anything more, but in a manner he who is forty years old, if he has any understanding at all, has seen by virtue of the uniformity that prevails all things which have been and all that will be. This too is a property of the rational soul, love of one's neighbour, and truth and modesty, and to value nothing more more than itself, which is also the property of Law. Thus then right reason differs not at all from the reason of justice.

理性灵魂有下列性质:它观察自身,分析自身,把自身塑造成它所选择的模样,综自己享受 自己的果实-而植物的果实和动物中相应于果实的东西是由别人享受的-它达到它自己的 目的而不管生命的界限终于何处。它不像在一个舞蹈或一场戏剧或别的类似事物中那样,只 要有什么东西打断,整个活动就是不完全的,它是全面的,无论它在哪里停止,综都使置于 它之前的东西充分和完整,以致它可以说:我拥有属于我所有的。加之它横贯整个宇宙和周 围的虚空,概览它的形式,它使自己伸展到无限的时间之中,囊括和领悟所有事物的时代更 替,它领悟到我们的后人将看不到任何新东西,而我们的前人也不比我们见得更多,而是在 某种程度上,一个四十岁的人,如果它有完整的理解力,他就通过那君临万物的齐一性看见 了所有存在过和将要存在的事物。这也是理性灵魂的一种性质:即热爱邻人,热爱真理和谦 虚,除了重视那也是法之性质的理性自身,再不重视任何别的东西。这样正确的理性就和正 义的理性毫无二致了。

Thou wilt set little value on pleasing song and dancing and the pancratium, if thou wilt distribute the melody of the voice into its several sounds, and ask thyself as to each, if thou art mastered by this; for thou wilt be prevented by shame from confessing it: and in the matter of dancing, if at each movement and attitude thou wilt do the same; and the like also in the matter of the pancratium. In all things, then, except virtue and the acts of virtue, remember to apply thyself to their several parts, and by this division to come to value them little: and apply this rule also to thy whole life.

如果你把一支乐曲分割成一个个的声音,然后对每一个声音自问,你是否被它征服,那样你 将对悦人的歌曲、舞蹈和拳击比赛评价颇低。因为你将羞于承认:在舞蹈中,是否你做出的 每个动作和姿态都是同样的,在拳击中也是一样。那么,除了德性和有德性的行为,记住对 所有事物都使自己注意它们一个个的部分,通过这种划分达到对它们评价颇低,也把这一规 则应用于你整个的生活。

What a soul that is which is ready, if at any moment it must be separated from the body, and ready either to be extinguished or dispersed or continue to exist; but so that this readiness comes from a man's own judgement, not from mere obstinacy, as with the Christians, but considerately and with dignity and in a way to persuade another, without tragic show.

如果一个灵魂随时准备好它必须从身体分离的时刻的到来,准备好:或者毁灭,或者消散, 或者继续存在,那么这是一个怎样的灵魂啊!但这种欣然的准备是来自一个人自己的判断的, 而不是来自仅仅一种基督徒那样的顽固性。这种准备是深思熟虑的、带有尊严的,以一种 使别人信服的方式进行,且没有任何悲惨的表情。

Have I done something for the general interest? Well then I have had my reward. Let this always be present to thy mind, and never stop doing such good.

我为普遍利益做过什么事情吗?那么好,我从自身得到了奖赏。让我的心灵总是想到这一点, 决不停止行这种善。

What is thy art? To be good. And how is this accomplished well except by general principles, some about the nature of the universe, and others about the proper constitution of man?

什么是你的技艺?成为善的。而除非通过一些有关宇宙本性的普遍原则和另一些有关人的恰 当结构的普遍原则,怎么能好好完成此事呢?

At first tragedies were brought on the stage as means of reminding men of the things which happen to them, and that it is according to nature for things to happen so, and that, if you are delighted with what is shown on the stage, you should not be troubled with that which takes place on the larger stage. For you see that these things must be accomplished thus, and that even they bear them who cry out "O Cithaeron." And, indeed, some things are said well by the dramatic writers, of which kind is the following especially:

最初上演的悲剧是作为一种手段提醒人们注意对他们发生的事情,提醒他们:事情 如此发生是符合自然的,如果你喜欢那在舞台上展现的事情,你也不会为在更大的舞台上发 生的事情苦恼。因为你看到这些事情是必须如此完成的,甚至那些喊出"啊,天啦"的人也忍 受了它们。的确,对有些事情戏剧家说得很好,特别是下面的话:

Me and my children if the gods neglect, This has its reason too. And again- We must not chale and fret at that which happens. And Life's harvest reap like the wheat's fruitful ear. And other things of the same kind.

"如果神灵忽视我和我的子孙, 这自然有它的理由。" 以及: "我们决不要为发生的事愤怒和焦燥。" 还有: "生命的果实收割起来就像丰硕的麦穗。" 以及诸如此类的别的说法。

After tragedy the old comedy was introduced, which had a magisterial freedom of speech, and by its very plainness of speaking was useful in reminding men to beware of insolence; and for this purpose too Diogenes used to take from these writers.

在悲剧之后引进了古老的喜剧,这种喜剧里有一种肆无忌惮的信口开河,但这种说话的坦率 有助于提醒人们懂得什么是傲慢,因此之故戴奥真尼斯过去也常引用这些作家的话。

But as to the middle comedy which came next, observe what it was, and again, for what object the new comedy was introduced, which gradually sunk down into a mere mimic artifice. That some good things are said even by these writers, everybody knows: but the whole plan of such poetry and dramaturgy, to what end does it look!

至于随后出现的中间时代的喜剧,观察它是什么,再看这一新的喜剧是因什么目的被引进的, 它渐渐地流为一种仅仅插科打诨的技巧。每个人都知道:甚至这些作家也说了一些好的话, 但这类诗人和剧作家的整个戏剧都是倾向于什么样的目的啊!

How plain does it appear that there is not another condition of life so well suited for philosophising as this in which thou now happenest to be. 这看来是多么明白啊:没有一种生活条件比你现在碰巧有的条件更适合于哲学。

A branch cut off from the adjacent branch must of necessity be cut off from the whole tree also. So too a man when he is separated from another man has fallen off from the whole social community. Now as to a branch, another cuts it off, but a man by his own act separates himself from his neighbour when he hates him and turns away from him, and he does not know that he has at the same time cut himself off from the whole social system. Yet he has this privilege certainly from Zeus who framed society, for it is in our power to grow again to that which is near to us, and be to come a part which helps to make up the whole. However, if it often happens, this kind of separation, it makes it difficult for that which detaches itself to be brought to unity and to be restored to its former condition. Finally, the branch, which from the first grew together with the tree, and has continued to have one life with it, is not like that which after being cut off is then ingrafted, for this is something like what the gardeners mean when they say that it grows with the rest of the tree, but that it has not the same mind with it.

从邻枝上切下的一根枝条必定也是从整个树上切下的。所以,一个人若同另一个人分离,他 也是同整个社会分离。对于枝条来说,还是另外的东西切下了它,而一个人却是通过自己的 行为使他同他的邻人分离-当他憎恨别人和不睬别人的时候。他不知道他同时也使自己与整 个社会体系分开了。但他还是拥有一种肯定来自创造社会的宙斯的特权,因为逐渐地再回到 那接近于我们的,再变成有助于合整体的一个部分,这是在我们的力量范围之内。然而,如 果这种他离时常发生,对于那他离者来说,被带到统一,回到它先前的状态就要困难了。最 后,那最初与树一起生长迄今一直一与树共享一个生命的枝条,并不像那先切下来然后再嫁 接上去的枝条,因为后者正像园丁所说,当它与树的其余部分一起生长时,它并不拥有和树 同样的心灵。

As those who try to stand in thy way when thou art proceeding according to right reason, will not be able to turn thee aside from thy proper action, so neither let them drive thee from thy benevolent feelings towards them, but be on thy guard equally in both matters, not only in the matter of steady judgement and action, but also in the matter of gentleness towards those who try to hinder or otherwise trouble thee. For this also is a weakness, to be vexed at them, as well as to be diverted from thy course of action and to give way through fear; for both are equally deserters from their post, the man who does it through fear, and the man who is alienated from him who is by nature a kinsman and a friend.

正像那些在你按照正确的理性行进时企图阻碍你的人并不能使你偏离自己的正道一样,也不 要让他们驱散你对他们的仁爱感情,而只是同样地提防着两件事情:即不仅保持自己判断和 行为的稳定性,而且和善地对待那些试图阻止否则就给你吃苦头的人。因为,因他们而烦恼, 就和由于畏惧而偏离你的行动路线或让步一样,也是一种软弱,因为这两种人,即由于畏惧 而这样做的人,和使自己疏远于天生是自己同胞和朋友的人,都是放弃自己的立场。

There is no nature which is inferior to art, for the arts imitate the nature of things. But if this is so, that nature which is the most perfect and the most comprehensive of all natures, cannot fall short of the skill of art. Now all arts do the inferior things for the sake of the superior; therefore the universal nature does so too. And, indeed, hence is the origin of justice, and in justice the other virtues have their foundation: for justice will not be observed, if we either care for middle things (things indifferent), or are easily deceived and careless and changeable.

没有任何本性低于技艺,因为技艺模仿事物的本性。但如果是这样,那所有本性中最完善和 最普遍的本性就也不会缺少技艺。既然所有技艺都是为了更高的技艺而做次等的事,那么宇 宙的本性也是这样安排。的确,正义的根本性也是源于此,别的德性都在正义中有其基础, 因为,假如我们关心的是中间的(中性的事物),或者容易受骗,轻率和易变,正义也就不 能被遵循。

If the things do not come to thee, the pursuits and avoidances of which disturb thee, still in a manner thou goest to them. Let then thy judgement about them be at rest, and they will remain quiet, and thou wilt not be seen either pursuing or avoiding.

如果事物不趋向你,对事物的追求和躲避打扰着你,你还是要以某种方式趋向于它们。那么 让你对它们的判断进入宁静吧,它们也将保持安静,人们将不会看到你在追求或躲避。

The spherical form of the soul maintains its figure, when it is neither extended towards any object, nor contracted inwards, nor dispersed nor sinks down, but is illuminated by light, by which it sees the truth, the truth of all things and the truth that is in itself.

球状的灵魂保持着它的形象:如果它既不伸展到任何物体,也不向内收缩,不发散也不凝结, 而是被光芒照耀,借这种光这看到真理,看到所有事物和它自身的真理。

Suppose any man shall despise me. Let him look to that himself. But I will look to this, that I be not discovered doing or saying anything deserving of contempt. Shall any man hate me? Let him look to it. But I will be mild and benevolent towards every man, and ready to show even him his mistake, not reproachfully, nor yet as making a display of my endurance, but nobly and honestly, like the great Phocion, unless indeed he only assumed it. For the interior parts ought to be such, and a man ought to be seen by the gods neither dissatisfied with anything nor complaining. For what evil is it to thee, if thou art now doing what is agreeable to thy own nature, and art satisfied with that which at this moment is suitable to the nature of the universe, since thou art a human being placed at thy post in order that what is for the common advantage may be done in some way?

假设有什么人蔑视我,让他自己去注意这种蔑视吧。而我要注意的是这一点:人们看到我不 会去做或者说配受蔑视的任何事情。有什么人憎恨我吗?让他去注意这憎恨吧。但我要使自 己对每个人都和善、仁爱,甚至乐意向恨我者展示他的错误,但不是通过斥责他,也不是做 出一种忍耐的样子,而是像伟大的福西昂那样,表现得高和诚实,除非他的确顽固不改。因 为次等的部分应当是这样,一个人应当让神灵看见自己不是不满或者抱怨的。如果你现在正 做着使你自己的本性愉悦的事情,如果你对此刻适合于宇宙本性的事情感到满意,因为你是 放在你的地位上的一个人,以便可以以某种方式做促进共同利益的事情,那么,还对你怎么 是恶呢?

Men despise one another and flatter one another; and men wish to raise themselves above one another, and crouch before one another.


How unsound and insincere is he who says, I have determined to deal with thee in a fair way.- What art thou doing, man? There is no occasion to give this notice. It will soon show itself by acts. The voice ought to be plainly written on the forehead. Such as a man's character is, he immediately shows it in his eyes, just as he who is beloved forthwith reads everything in the eyes of lovers. The man who is honest and good ought to be exactly like a man who smells strong, so that the bystander as soon as he comes near him must smell whether he choose or not. But the affectation of simplicity is like a crooked stick. Nothing is more disgraceful than a wolfish friendship (false friendship). Avoid this most of all. The good and simple and benevolent show all these things in the eyes, and there is no mistaking.

那说他决心公正地待你的人是多么不正常和不真诚啊!-人啊,你在做什么?没有必要发出 这一通知,它马上就要通过行动来显示。愿望应当明白地表现为你的举止。一个人的品格也 是,他直接在他的眼睛里显示它,正像那恋人立即从对方的眼睛里读出一切。诚实和善良的 人应当就像一朵香味浓郁的鲜花,以致其他人一旦接近他时就知道他的意愿。而矫揉造作的 朴实却像一根弯曲的棍子。没有什么比那种豺狼似的友谊(虚伪的友谊)更可耻的了。要尽 最大努力避免它。善良、朴实和仁慈都明确无误地在眼睛里展示。

As to living in the best way, this power is in the soul, if it be indifferent to things which are indifferent. And it will be indifferent, if it looks on each of these things separately and all together, and if it remembers that not one of them produces in us an opinion about itself, nor comes to us; but these things remain immovable, and it is we ourselves who produce the judgements about them, and, as we may say, write them in ourselves, it being in our power not to write them, and it being in our power, if perchance these judgements have imperceptibly got admission to our minds, to wipe them out; and if we remember also that such attention will only be for a short time, and then life will be at an end. Besides, what trouble is there at all in doing this? For if these things are according to nature, rejoice in them, and they will be easy to thee: but if contrary to nature, seek what is conformable to thy own nature, and strive towards this, even if it bring no reputation; for every man is allowed to seek his own good.

至于以最善的方式生活,这种力量是在于灵魂,只要它对无关紧要的事物采取漠然的态度。 它之能采取漠然的态度,是在于它对每一个这样的事物都看其部分,又看其全体,还在于它 记住这些事物中没有哪一个能使我们产生对它的意见,也不会接触我们,这些事情都是始终 不动的,是我们自己做出了对的判断,我们可以说,是我们自己把它们写在我们心里,因此 我们是可以不写它们的,如果偶尔这些判断不知不觉地进入我们心里,我们是可以消灭它们 的;还在于我们也记住,这样的念头只会存在一个短时期,届时生命就要结束。此外,这样 做有什么困难呢?因为,如果这些事物是合乎自然的,就喜欢它们吧。它们对你就是惬决的; 但是,如果是违反自然的,那就去找合于你自己本性的东西,努力追求它,即使它不会带来 名誉,因为每个人都是可以去寻求他自己的善的。

Consider whence each thing is come, and of what it consists, and into what it changes, and what kind of a thing it will be when it has changed, and that it will sustain no harm.

考虑每一事物是从何而来,由什么东西组成,进入什么变化,当它改变时又变成什么性质的 事物,它将没有损害地继续存在。

If any have offended against thee, consider first: What is my relation to men, and that we are made for one another; and in another respect, I was made to be set over them, as a ram over the flock or a bull over the herd. But examine the matter from first principles, from this: If all things are not mere atoms, it is nature which orders all things: if this is so, the inferior things exist for the sake of the superior, and these for the sake of one another.

如果有人冒犯了你,首先考虑:我和人们之间有什么联系,我们是被造出来相互合作的,另 一方面,我是被造出来放在他们之上的,就像一只公羊对羊群,一只公牛对牛群。要从最先 的原则,从这个原则来考察这个问题:如果所有事物都不止是原子,那安排所有事物的就是 自然:如果这是这样,低等的事物就要为高等的事物而存在,而这些高等的事物就要相互合 作。

Second, consider what kind of men they are at table, in bed, and so forth: and particularly, under what compulsions in respect of opinions they are; and as to their acts, consider with what pride they do what they do.

第二,考虑冒犯者他们在饭桌边、在眠床上等地方是什么人,尤其是考虑他们在什么压力下 形成意见和行动的,他们做他们所做的事带着何种骄傲。

Third, that if men do rightly what they do, we ought not to be displeased; but if they do not right, it is plain that they do so involuntarily and in ignorance. For as every soul is unwillingly deprived of the truth, so also is it unwillingly deprived of the power of behaving to each man according to his deserts. Accordingly men are pained when they are called unjust, ungrateful, and greedy, and in a word wrong-doers to their neighbours.

第三,如果人们是正当地做他们所做的,那我们不应当不愉快;但如果他们做得不正当,那 很显然他们这样做是出于无知和不自觉。因为正像每一灵魂都不愿意自己被剥夺真理一样, 它也不愿意自己被剥夺按照他的应分对每个人行动的力量。所以,当人们被称为是不正直、 背信弃义、贪婪,总之是对邻人行恶的人时,他们是痛苦的。

Fourth, consider that thou also doest many things wrong, and that thou art a man like others; and even if thou dost abstain from certain faults, still thou hast the disposition to commit them, though either through cowardice, or concern about reputation, or some such mean motive, thou dost abstain from such faults.

第四,考虑你也做了许多不正当的事情,你是一个和他们相仿的人,即使你戒除了某些错误, 但你还是有犯这些错误的倾向,而且你戒除这些错误,也许或者是出于怯懦,或者是关心名 声,或者是出于别的不洁的动机。

Fifth, consider that thou dost not even understand whether men are doing wrong or not, for many things are done with a certain reference to circumstances. And in short, a man must learn a great deal to enable him to pass a correct judgement on another man's acts.

第五,考虑你甚至不知道人们是否真的在做不正当的事情,因为许多事情都是由于和某种环 绕的关系而做出的。总之,一个人必须学习许多东西,以便他能够对另一个人行为做出正确 的判断。

Sixth, consider when thou art much vexed or grieved, that man's life is only a moment, and after a short time we are all laid out dead.


Seventh, that it is not men's acts which disturb us, for those acts have their foundation in men's ruling principles, but it is our own opinions which disturb us. Take away these opinions then, and resolve to dismiss thy judgement about an act as if it were something grievous, and thy anger is gone. How then shall I take away these opinions? By reflecting that no wrongful act of another brings shame on thee: for unless that which is shameful is alone bad, thou also must of necessity do many things wrong, and become a robber and everything else.

第七,那打扰我们的不是人们的行为,因为那些行为的根基是在他们的支配原则中,那打扰 我们的是我们自己的意见。那么就先驱除这些意见,坚决地放弃你对一个行为的判断-仿佛 它是什么极恶的东西的判断吧,这样你的愤怒就会消失。那么我怎样驱除这意见呢?通过思 考没有哪一个别人的恶行能给你带来耻辱,因为,如果不是只有自作的恶行才是可耻的,你 也必然做出许多不正当的事,变成一个强盗或别的什么人。

Eighth, consider how much more pain is brought on us by the anger and vexation caused by such acts than by the acts themselves, at which we are angry and vexed.

第八,考虑由这种行为引起的愤怒和烦恼带给我们的痛苦,要比这种行为本身带给我们的痛 苦多得多。

Ninth, consider that a good disposition is invincible, if it be genuine, and not an affected smile and acting a part. For what will the most violent man do to thee, if thou continuest to be of a kind disposition towards him, and if, as opportunity offers, thou gently admonishest him and calmly correctest his errors at the very time when he is trying to do thee harm, saying, Not so, my child: we are constituted by nature for something else: I shall certainly not be injured, but thou art injuring thyself, my child.- And show him with gentle tact and by general principles that this is so, and that even bees do not do as he does, nor any animals which are formed by nature to be gregarious. And thou must do this neither with any double meaning nor in the way of reproach, but affectionately and without any rancour in thy soul; and not as if thou wert lecturing him, nor yet that any bystander may admire, but either when he is alone, and if others are present...

第九,考虑一种好的气质是不可征服的,只要它是真实的,而不是一种做作的微笑和半心半 意。因为最蛮横的人将会对你做什么呢,只要你对他始终保持一种和善的态度,如果条件允 许,你温和地劝导他,平静地在他试图损害你的时候纠正他的错误,你这样说:我的孩子, 不要这样,我们被选出来天生是为了别的什么事情的,我将肯定不会受到伤害,而你却要伤 害你自己,我的孩子-这样以温和的口吻,用如此的一般原则向他说理,并说明甚至蜜蜂也 不会做像他所做的事,更不必说那些天生被造出来合作的动物了。你必须在这样做时不带有 任何双重的意久或以斥责的口吻进行,而是柔和的,在你的心灵里没有任何怨恨,不要仿佛 你是在对他讲演,仿佛旁观者会给出赞扬,而是当他独自一人的时候,如果别人在场……

Remember these nine rules, as if thou hadst received them as a gift from the Muses, and begin at last to be a man while thou livest. But thou must equally avoid flattering men and being veied at them, for both are unsocial and lead to harm. And let this truth be present to thee in the excitement of anger, that to be moved by passion is not manly, but that mildness and gentleness, as they are more agreeable to human nature, so also are they more manly; and he who possesses these qualities possesses strength, nerves and courage, and not the man who is subject to fits of passion  and discontent. For in the same degree in which a man's mind is nearer to freedom from all passion, in the same degree also is it nearer to strength: and as the sense of pain is a characteristic of weakness, so also is anger. For he who yields to pain and he who yields to anger, both are wounded and both submit.

记住这九条规则,仿佛它们是你从缪斯收到的一个礼物,终于在你活着的时候开始成为一个 人。但是你必须同等地避免奉承人们又不因他们而生出烦恼,因为两者都是反社会和导致的。 在激起你愤怒时,让这一真理出现于你的心中吧:被激情推动是缺乏男子气概的,而和善宽 厚由于是人性更欣悦的,它们却更有男子气概,那拥有这些品质的人也拥有力量、精力和勇 敢,而那受制于激情和不满的发怒者却不拥有这些。因为一个人的心灵在什么程度上接受于 摆脱激情,它也就在同样的程度上更接近力量,正像痛苦的感觉是软弱的一个特征一样,愤 怒也是软弱的一个特征。因为那从属于痛苦的人那屈从于愤怒的人,两者都受到伤害,都是 屈服。

But if thou wilt, receive also a tenth present from the leader of the Muses (Apollo), and it is thisthat to expect bad men not to do wrong is madness, for he who expects this desires an impossibility. But to allow men to behave so to others, and to expect them not to do thee any wrong, is irrational and tyrannical.

但如果你愿意,也要从缪斯们的领袖(阿波罗)那里收到第十个礼物,这就是-希望坏人们 不做恶事是发疯,因为希望者欲求一件不可能的事情。而只许坏人对别人行恶,却期望他们 不对你做任何恶事,是没有理性和专横的。

There are four principal aberrations of the superior faculty against which thou shouldst be constantly on thy guard, and when thou hast detected them, thou shouldst wipe them out and say on each occasion thus: this thought is not necessary: this tends to destroy social union: this which thou art going to say comes not from the real thoughts; for thou shouldst consider it among the most absurd of things for a man not to speak from his real thoughts. But the fourth is when thou shalt reproach thyself for anything, for this is an evidence of the diviner part within thee being overpowered and yielding to the less honourable and to the perishable part, the body, and to its gross pleasures.

有四种主要的对于优越能力的偏离是你应当始终提防的,当你发现偏离时,你应当消除它们, 在每逢这种情况时都这样说:这个思想是不必要的;这种倾向是毁坏社会联合的;你所要说 的东西不是来自真正的思想的;因为你应考虑一个人不表达真正的思想是最荒唐的事情之 一。而第四要提防的是当你因什么事而使自己丢脸时,因为这种丢脸是一个证扰,证明在你 内部较神圣的部分屈服和顺从于较不光彩和容易衰朽的部分,即身体和它粗俗的快乐。

Thy aerial part and all the fiery parts which are mingled in thee, though by nature they have an upward tendency, still in obedience to the disposition of the universe they are overpowered here in the compound mass (the body). And also the whole of the earthy part in thee and the watery, though their tendency is downward, still are raised up and occupy a position which is not their natural one. In this manner then the elemental parts obey the universal, for when they have been fixed in any place perforce they remain there until again the universal shall sound the signal for dissolution. Is it not then strange that thy intelligent part only should be disobedient and discontented with its own place? And yet no force is imposed on it, but only those things which are conformable to its nature: still it does not submit, but is carried in the opposite direction. For the movement towards injustice and intemperance and to anger and grief and fear is nothing else than the act of one who deviates from nature. And also when the ruling faculty is discontented with anything that happens, then too it deserts its post: for it is constituted for piety and reverence towards the gods no less than for justice. For these qualities also are comprehended under the generic term of contentment with the constitution of things, and indeed they are prior to acts of justice.

那与你温和的属气和属火的部分,虽然它们天然有一种向上的趋势,但还是服从于宇宙的配 置,被挤压在这一混合体(身体)之中。那在你身上属土和属水的部分,虽然它们趋势是往 下的,但也还是被提高,占据了一个并非它们自然就有的位置。这样,这些元素就以这种方 式服从这宇宙,因为一旦它们被放在什么地方,它们就必须保持在那儿直到宇宙再发出分解 的信号。那么,只有你的理智部分竟然不顺从和不满意于它自己的地位,这不是很奇怪吗? 且并没有什么力量强加于它,而仅仅是那些按其本性发生的事情,它却还是不服从,反而转 到对言的方向。因为那倾向于不义和放任、倾向于愤怒、悲伤和畏惧的活动不是别的,而只 是一个偏离本性的人的行为。当支配能力不满足于发生的事情时也是如此,那么它也就放弃 了它的位置,因为它是为了虔诚和同样尊重正义和神灵而被造出来的。因为这些品质也是在 满足于事物的结构这一总称下把握的,它们的确先于正义的行为。

He who has not one and always the same object in life, cannot be one and the same all through his life. But what I have said is not enough, unless this also is added, what this object ought to be. For as there is not the same opinion about all the things which in some way or other are considered by the majority to be good, but only about some certain things, that is, things which concern the common interest; so also ought we to propose to ourselves an object which shall be of a common kind (social) and political. For he who directs all his own efforts to this object, will make all his acts alike, and thus will always be the same.

那种在生活中没有一个始终一贯的目标的人,不可能在他的毕生中是统一和一致的。但我所 说的若不加上这一点就还是不够的:即这个目标应当是什么。因为,正像在所有被多数人以 这种或那种方式考虑为是善的事物上并没有一致意见,而只是对某些关系到共同利益的事物 有一致意见一样,我们也应当在我们的面前放置一个具有共同性质(社会性)和政治性质的 目标。因为那使他自己的所有努力均指向这一目标的人,将使他所有的行为都相似,这样就 将始终保持一致。

Think of the country mouse and of the town mouse, and of the alarm and trepidation of the town mouse.


Socrates used to call the opinions of the many by the name of Lamiae, bugbears to frighten children.


The Lacedaemonians at their public spectacles used to set seats in the shade for strangers, but themselves sat down anywhere.

古代斯巴达人在举行公共庆典时常常为陌生人在遮阳棚里安排座位,而他们自己则在无论什 么地方坐下。

Socrates excused himself to Perdiccas for not going to him, saying, It is because I would not perish by the worst of all ends, that is, I would not receive a favour and then be unable to return it.

苏格拉底向珀迪克斯解释为没有到他那里去的原因,他说,这是因为我不想以最坏的结局去 死,也就是说,我不想收到一个赞扬却不能回报。

In the writings of the Ephesians there was this precept, constantly to think of some one of the men of former times who practised virtue.


The Pythagoreans bid us in the morning look to the heavens that we may be reminded of those bodies which continually do the same things and in the same manner perform their work, and also be reminded of their purity and nudity. For there is no veil over a star.

毕达哥拉斯嘱咐我们在清晨的时候抬头看天,这会提醒我们想起那些始终做同样的事情,以 同样的方式去做它们的工作的物体,也会使我们想起它们的纯洁和坦露。因为在星球之上没 有罪恶。

Consider what a man Socrates was when he dressed himself in a skin, after Xanthippe had taken his cloak and gone out, and what Socrates said to his friends who were ashamed of him and drew back from him when they saw him dressed thus.

想一想苏格拉底在赞蒂帕拿走了他的外套,他就给自己裹上一件毛皮时,他是什么样的人; 以及当他的朋友看见他如此穿着为他害羞并离开他时,他对他们是怎么说的。

Neither in writing nor in reading wilt thou be able to lay down rules for others before thou shalt have first learned to obey rules thyself. Much more is this so in life.

在你亲自学习服之前,你决不可能在写作或阅读中为别人立下什么规则。在生活中就更其如 此。

A slave thou art: free speech is not for thee. And my heart laughed within. And virtue they will curse, speaking harsh words. To look for the fig in winter is a madman's act: such is he who looks for his child when it is no longer allowed.

你是一个奴隶:自由的言谈不是适于人你的。 -我的心在里面欢笑。 他们将谴责德性,说出严苛的字眼。 在冬天寻找无花果是一个疯人的行为,那在不再被允许的时候寻求他儿子的人也是如此。

When a man kisses his child, said Epictetus, he should whisper to himself, "To-morrow perchance thou wilt die."- But those are words of bad omen.- "No word is a word of bad omen," said Epictetus, "which expresses any work of nature; or if it is so, it is also a word of bad omen to speak of the ears of corn being reaped."

埃比克太德说,当一个人吻他的孩子时,他应当自言自语:"明天也许他就要死去。""但这 是一些凶兆之词。-"那表示自然的活动的词没有一个是凶兆之词,"埃比克太德说:"或者 如果这是的话,它也只不过是那种跟说麦穗的收割一样的凶兆之词。"

The unripe grape, the ripe bunch, the dried grape, all are changes, not into nothing, but into something which exists not yet.

未熟的葡萄、成熟的和干枯了的葡萄,所有这些都是变化,不是变为虚无,而是变为尚未存 在的什么东西。

No man can rob us of our free will.


Epictetus also said, A man must discover an art (or rules) with respect to giving his assent; and in respect to his movements he must be careful that they be made with regard to circumstances, that they be consistent with social interests, that they have regard to the value of the object; and as to sensual desire, he should altogether keep away from it; and as to avoidance (aversion) he should not show it with respect to any of the things which are not in our power.

埃比克太德也说:一个人必须发现表示他的同意态度的艺术(或规则),在涉及到他的活动 时,他必须注意使活动参照环境做出,满足社会利益,尊重目标的价值;对于感官欲望,他 应当完全摆脱它们,至于回避(厌恶),他不对任何非我们力量之内的事情表现这种态度。

The dispute then, he said, is not about any common matter, but about being mad or not.


Socrates used to say, What do you want? Souls of rational men or irrational?- Souls of rational men.- Of what rational men? Sound or unsound?- Sound.- Why then do you not seek for them?- Because we have them.- Why then do you fight and quarrel?

苏格拉底常常说,你想要什么?是有理性的人的灵魂还是无理性的人的灵魂?-有理性的人 的灵魂。-有理性的人中的什么灵魂呢?健全的还是畸形的灵魂?-健全的。-那么你为什么不寻求它们呢?-因为我们有了它们。-那你们为什么还争斗和沙闹呢?