托福模拟试题听力 - TPO18 - 讲座3

时间 : 2013-08-01 07:49来源 : VOA官网 收听下载次数 :
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TPO 18 Lecture 3 European History
  
Professor:In order to really study the social history of the Middle Ages, you have to understand the role of spices. Now, this might sound a little spurring, even a little strange. But what seem like little things now were back then actually rather big things. So first let’s define what a spice is. Technically speaking, a spice is part of an aromatic plant that is not a leaf or herb. Spices can come from tree bark like cinnamon, plant roots like ginger, flower buds like cloves. And in the Middle Ages. Europeans were familiar with lots of different spices, most important being pepper, cloves, ginger, cinnamon, maize and nutmeg. These spices literarily dominated the way Europeans lived for centuries, how they traded and even how they used their imaginations. So why this medieval fascination with spices? We can boil it down to there general ideas briefly. One was cost and rarity. Uh two was exotic taste and fragrance. And third, mysterious origins and kinds of mythical status. Now for cost and rarity, spices aren’t native to Europe and they had to be imported. Spices only grew in the East Indies and of course transportation costs were incredibly valuable even from the very beginning. Here is an example. In 408 AD, the Gothic General who captured Rome demanded payment. He wanted 5000 pounds of gold among other things but he also wanted 3000 pounds of pepper. Maybe that would give you an idea of exactly where pepper stood at the time. By the Middle Ages, spices were regarded as so important and expensive they were used in diplomacy, as gifts by heads of state and ambassadors.

Now for the taste. The diet then was relatively bland, compared to today’s. There wasn’t much variety. Especially the aristocracy who tended to eat a lot of meat, they were always looking for new ways to prepare it, new sources, new tastes and this is where spices came in. Now, this is a good point to mention one of the biggest myths about spices. It’s commonly said that medieval Europeans wanted spices to cover up the taste of spoiled meat. But this isn’t really true. Anyone who had to worry about spoiled meat couldn’t afford spices in the first place. If you could afford spices, you could definitely afford fresh meat. We also have evidence that various medieval markets employed a kind of police to make sure that people did not sell spoiled food, and if you were caught doing it, you were subject to various fines, humiliating public punishments. So what actually was true was this: In order to have meat for the winter, people would preserve it in salt, not a spice. Spices actually aren’t very effective as preservatives. And throughout winter, they would eat salted meat, but the taste of the stuff could grow really boring and depressing after a while.

So the cook started looking for new ways to improve the taste and spices were the answer, which brings us to mysterious origins and mythical status. Now the ancient Romans had a thriving spice trade and they sent their ships to the east and back. But when Rome collapsed in the fifth century and the Middle Ages began, direct trade stopped, and so did that kind of hands-on knowledge of travel and geography. Spices now came by way of the trade routes with lots of intermediaries between the producer and the consumer. So these spices took on an air of mystery. Their origins were shrouded in exotic travels. They had the allure of the unknown, of wild places. Myths grew up of fantasy lands, magical faraway places made entirely of food and spices. And to that, spices themselves had always been considered special or magical not just for eating and this was already true in the ancient world where legends about spices were abundant. Spices inspired the medieval imagination. They were used as medicines to ward off diseases, and mixed into perfumes, incent. They were used in religious rituals for thousands of years. They took on a life of their own and they inspired the medieval imagination, spurred on the age of discovery in the 145th and 16th centuries. When famous explorers like Columbus and da Gama and Magellan left Europe in their ships, they weren’t looking for a new world.; they were looking for spices. And we know what important historical repercussions some of those voyages had.

 

1 What is the main purpose of the lecture?

A. To explore the use of spices in conking in the Middle Ages

B. To explain the significance of spices for medieval society

C. To describe how the spice trade evolved in medieval Europe

D. To examine changes in the role that spices played in the Middle Ages

 

2 What two factors explain why medieval Europeans did not use spices to cover the taste of spoiled meat?

A. Fresh meat was less expensive than spices were.

B. Spices were mainly used in incense and perfume.

C. The sale of spoiled food was prohibited.

D. Salt was cheaper than most spices were.

 

3 Why does the professor mention the collapse of the Roman Empire?

A. To indicate that the spice trade became mere direct

B. To explain why the price of pepper suddenly increased

C. To indicate that spices were not available in Europe for centuries

D. To explain why the origins of spices became more mysterious

 

4 What does the professor say about European explorers during the age of discovery?

A. Their discoveries caused the price of certain spices to increase

B. They were responding to the demand for spices.

C. They did not expect to find spices during their explorations.

D. Their main goal was to discover unknown lands.