TPO 24 Lecture l-Biology (Crocodile Vocalization)
Professor：OK. For today, let's look at a reptile, a predator that hasn't evolved much in the last seventy million years. No discussion of reptiles would be complete without some mention of crocodiles.Now, we tend to think of crocodiles as, uh, kind of solitary, hiding out in a swamp, uh, kind of mysterious creatures. But we are finding out that they aren't as isolated as they seem. In fact, crocodiles interact with each other in a variety of ways. One way is with vocalizations, you know, sounds generated by the animal. This is true of the whole crocodile family, which includes crocodiles themselves, alligators, etc.Take American alligators. If you were to go to a swamp during the breeding season, you'd hear a chorus of sounds, deep grunts, hisses, these are sounds that male alligators make.And some of them are powerful enough to make the water vibrate. This sends a strong, go-away message to the other males. So the alligator can focus on sending other sound waves through the water, sound waves that you and I couldn't even hear since they are at such low frequency. But they do reach the female alligator, who then goes to find and mate with the male.
Vocalization is um...well, it is used for other reasons, like getting attention or just, um... letting others know you are distressed. Let's see. New-born crocodiles, or hatchlings and their interactions with their mothers. When they are born, croc... baby crocodiles have a sort of muffled cry while they are in their nest. Hatchlings are really vulnerable, especially to birds and small mammals when they are born. But their mother, who has been keeping vigil nearby, hears their cry for help and carries them to safety, meaning, to water. So she takes them out of the nest. Uh, uh, all the eggs hatched at once, so she has about forty newborns to look after. Well, she takes about fifteen out of the nest at a time, carrying them in her mouth to the nearby water. While she is taking one load of hatchlings, the others wait for her to come back.But do you think they are quiet about it? No way. They are clamoring for the mother's attention, sort of squeaking and practically saying-don't forget about me!I heard some great examples of this on the television program on crocodiles last week. Anyone catched it? It had a few interesting bits. But you know, uh, you have to be careful, think critically. Sometimes I don't know where these shows find their experts.
Student：Excuse me. But, um... does all that crying defeat the purpose? I mean, doesn't it attract more predators
Professor：Hmm...good question. I guess, well, I am guessing that once the babies have the mother's attention, they are safe She's never too far away, and, and I think...I mean, would you mess with a mother crocodile?So after the mother transports all the youngsters, they still call to each other, and to their mother. This communication continues right through to adulthood. Crocodiles have about eighteen different sounds that they can make.There's...um...um… you have deep grunting sounds, hisses, growls, are many different sounds to interact or send messages. This is more typical of mammals than of reptiles. I mean, crocodiles' brains are the most developed of any reptile. In that sense, they are closer to mammals' brains than other reptiles' brains. And we know that mammals, dogs for example, dogs vocalize many different sounds. Crocodiles have a similar level of, uh, vocal sophistication, if you will, which makes them unique among reptiles.Another thing would be, um, if a hatchling gets separated from the rest of its family, once the others get far enough away, its survival instinct kicks in. It will make a loud distress call, which its siblings answer. It calls again. And they continue calling back and forth until they all find each other again.Another thing, something that wasn't on that TV show I mentioned. Um... mother crocodiles lead their young from one area to another, like when they have to find a different source of water. Usually she will lead them at night, when it is safer for them, moving ahead and then letting out calls of reassurance so that they will follow her. Her voice helps give the babies the courage they need to leave the area and go some place that's a more desirable home for them.
1 What does the professor mainly discuss?
A. Factors that affect successful crocodile communication
B. Some reasons for crocodile vocalizations
C. Ways that newborn crocodiles learn to communicate
D. Reasons why crocodile vocalization is difficult to study
2 According to the professor, what are two functions of the sounds made by male alligators? Click 2 answers
A. To frighten predators
B. To attract mates
C. To locate hatchlings
D. To threaten other males
3 Based on the discussion, what is one reason hatchlings make vocalizations to their mother while they are in the nest?
A. To reassure her that they are safe
B. To signal that they are ready to follow her
C. To make sure she does not forget them
D. To indicate that they need to be relocated to a larger nest
4 What is the professor's opinion about the television program that she mentions?
A. She is concerned about the accuracy of some of the information the experts provided.
B. She is hopeful that the class will be able to discuss it.
C. She thinks it was overly critical of some recent theories about crocodiles.
D. She is surprised that it did not include more examples of crocodile communication.
5 Why does the professor mention dogs?
A. To explain that mammals are more complex than reptiles
B. To point out that crocodiles can communicate with dogs
C. To give an example of mammals that care for their young
D. To emphasize that crocodiles have highly developed brains
6 What happens when a hatchling makes a distress call?
A. Its siblings answer back.
B. The mother repeats the call.
C. The rest of its family waits near water.
D. The mother calls to other adult crocodiles for assistance